By K. Zarkos. Columbia College of Missouri.
Use the horizontal scroll bar at the bottom of the Data Editor to see columns to the right cheap copegus 200mg with amex. Across the top of the Data Editor is the typical “Menu Bar trusted 200 mg copegus,” with buttons for File purchase 200mg copegus with mastercard, Edit, and so on. Some useful information is available by clicking Help: Click Topics for an index, Tutorial for instructions and examples, and Statistics Coach for help in select- ing a procedure. The first step in any data analysis is to name the variables and enter the scores. For example, say that we want to input the follow- ing scores, which measure creativity and intelligence: Participant Creativity Intelligence 1 50 110 2 47 116 3 65 125 4 66 127 5 48 100 Begin with a blank Data Editor: To clear old data, on the Menu Bar click File, point to New, and click Data. Name the variable(s): At the bottom left of the Data Editor, click on Variable View. In the left column under “Name” click on the first rectangle and type the variable’s name. In the “Label” column, you can add infor- mation about the variable that you want to remember. When participants’ are measured on both variables, each row in the Data Editor holds the scores from the same participant. Thus, participant 1 scored 50 on creativity, so in the Creativity column, click the rectangle next to “1” and type 50. Next you have three choices: (1) Press the Tab key on the keyboard, and the rectan- gle to the right of 50 is highlighted, ready for participant 1’s intelligence score; (2) press the Enter key and the rectangle below 50 is highlighted, ready for participant 2’s creativity score; (3) click any rectangle in either column to highlight it and type in the score that belongs there. You can enter data from several variables and then only analyze some of it at one time. On the Menu Bar, click Analyze, move the cursor to Descriptive Statistics, and then click Frequencies. In the left-hand column are the original scores, but arranged in increasing order. Click to place a check mark at Percentile(s) and in the space next to it, type the percentile that you seek. Place the cursor over the Fre- quency Polygon icon and drag it into the Chart preview area. The polygon will not show zero frequency when a score did not occur—the line will connect the frequencies of the scores above and below it. For example, say we have these ten test scores: 40 33 36 38 49 39 40 38 36 37 Enter the data: Name the variable and enter the scores into the Data Editor as usual. Select a frequency table: Repeat the previous steps for a frequency table: On the Menu Bar, select Analyze, Descriptive Statistics, and Frequencies. But back in your Data Editor, a new variable (a new column) will appear containing the z-score for each raw score. For Practice Using the data in questions 14 and 15 in Chapter 5, determine the mean, median, mode, estimated standard deviation and variance, and range. We obtain these scores: Participant Extroversion Aggression 1 14 23 2 12 10 3 10 11 4 13 18 5 19 20 6 20 18 7 9 10 8 4 9 Enter the data: Name the two variables and enter the scores in the two columns. Thus, in the first row, the (mean- ingless) robt between extroversion scores and extroversion scores is 11. Computing the Spearman Correlation Coefficient Say that we rank-ordered ten participants in terms of their attractiveness and their apparent honesty and we wish to correlate these ranks. Participant Attractive Honest 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 9 5 Enter the data: Enter the scores as we did for r. Select the correlation: On the Menu Bar, select Analyze, Correlate, and Bivariate. To perform linear regres- sion on these data, retrieve the file (or re-enter the scores). Identify X and Y: First decide which variable is the predictor variable (your X) and which is the criterion variable (your Y). Select the variable(s): Move your predictor or X variable (here “Extroversion”) under “Independent(s). Considerable information is provided, but the basic material is shown in Screen B. In the “Model Summary” table is r (called R), r2 (called R Square), and the obt standard error of the estimate. In the row at our predictor variable’s name (here, “Extroversion”) is the slope (our b). As in Application Question 21 in Chapter 8, compute the linear regression equa- tion when using Burnout to predict Absences. For example, we want to test if poor readers score differ- ently on a grammar test than the national population of readers (where 5 89; so H0: 5 89).
For example trusted copegus 200 mg, an anal fistula is an open- Report caused many medical schools to close purchase 200 mg copegus mastercard, and ing in the skin near the anus: This opening may lead most of the remaining schools were reformed to to a tunnel into the rectal canal or to a passage that conform to the Flexnerian model order copegus 200 mg on-line. Also known as spots in front of ribs are broken (usually from a crush injury) to the eyes. On inspi- ration, the chest wall moves inward instead of out- floating rib The last two false ribs, which usually ward, and it does the opposite on expiration. This condition may persist into adulthood, floppy baby syndrome An abnormal condition or an arch may form as the child grows. Flat feet can of newborns and infants manifested by inadequate also be acquired, as in jobs that require a great deal tone of the muscles. Flow cytometry can be used is also used to treat inherited lipid disorders and with automated sorting devices to sort successive similar disorders caused by liver or kidney disease. Lack of folic acid dur- X-rays with a device called an image intensifier and ing pregnancy can lead to neural tube birth defects, converts the X-rays into light. A flush is usually temporary and follicle A shaft in the skin through which hair brought on by excitement, exercise, fever, or grows. Symptoms may include stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, and weakness, depending on the organ- fontanel A soft spot of the skull of a newborn ism involved. The most prominent causes of food infant where the cartilage has not yet hardened into poisoning are noroviruses (often from shellfish and bone between the skull bones. There are normally salads), Campylobacter jejuni (the leading cause of two fontanels, both in the midline of the skull. The bacterial food poisoning, often from undercooked anterior fontanel is well in front of the posterior poultry), Salmonella (often from raw or under- fontanel. The posterior fontanel closes first, at latest cooked eggs), Listeria monocytogenes (often from by the age of 8 weeks in a full-term baby. The ante- unpasteurized milk and cheese), Vibrio vulnificus rior fontanel closes at around 18 months of age, but (through raw or inadequately cooked seafood), and it can close normally as early as 9 months. Not all items adver- a man’s foot, and it served as a measurement of tised as “super” foods or healing foods have been land. A processing facilities to ensure wholesomeness and footling birth is called single-footling or double- safety; scrutinizing food and drugs for pets and farm footling, depending on whether the presenting part animals; ensuring that cosmetics will not cause harm; of the baby at delivery is just one foot or both feet. Although a foramen also oversees health and safety labeling of these prod- is usually through bone, it can be an opening ucts. When serious foramen magnum The large hole at the base of adverse effects from a medication are reported, the the skull that allows passage of the spinal cord. For that reason, experts in infant nutrition normal feature of fetal and newborn circulation. Forceps may be used to ease delivery or to cope with problems of fornix In anatomy, any vaultlike or arched struc- fetal distress or fetal position. The decision to use ture, such as the fornix cerebri (an arching fibrous forceps must be made by an obstetrician. The forearm has two bones: the in the brain that connect the two lobes of the cere- radius and ulna. These vaultlike recesses are formed by pro- such as an investigation into the cause and time of a trusion of the cervix into the vagina. The foreskin is often surgically removed quency when a population (colony) has only a small via circumcision. For example, the gene for Huntington’s disease was introduced into the Lake foreskin, inflammation of the See posthitis. Harris fractures occur in the extremities of children The fourth ventricle is the most inferior (lowest) of at the point where new bone is being formed as the these. It is filled with cerebrospinal fluid that is formed by structures fracture, stress A fracture caused by repetitive called choroid plexuses located in the walls and stress, as may occur in sports, strenuous exercise, roofs of the ventricle. Stress fractures are espe- cially common in the metatarsal bones of the foot, fraction, ejection See ejection fraction. Although rest, disuse, and sometimes splinting or casting to usually a result of trauma, a fracture can be the prevent reinjury during healing. Fractures are ture is called toddler’s fracture because it occurs in classified according to their character and location infants who are early on in their walking, causing a (for example, greenstick fracture of the radius). Clay- shoveler’s fracture usually occurs in laborers who fracture, torus A fracture in which one side of a rapidly lift heavy weights with their arms extended, bone bends but does not actually break. Symptoms of clay-shoveler’s tures normally heal on their own within a month, fracture include burning, knife-like pain at the level with rest and disuse. Also known as incomplete of the fractured spine, between the upper shoulder fracture or buckle fracture. Most patients require fracture, transverse A fracture in which the no treatment other than rest and avoidance of activ- break is across a bone, at a right angle to the long ities that stress the area of the fracture.
This is especially unfortunate because most oral disease is easily and economically prevented and treated 200mg copegus with visa. Providing basic preventive and restorative care to these groups is achievable discount 200 mg copegus amex, provided that law- and policy- makers at the state and federal levels are willing to work with the dental profession cheap copegus 200mg free shipping, other members of the health community and other stakeholders toward that goal. The overall performance of the general economy influences dentistry just as it does other sectors. Market conditions within and outside den- tistry affect the amount and types of services provided, the geographical distribution of dentists, average income levels of dentists and auxiliary personnel, the financial strength of dental practices, and the number of applicants to and graduates from dental schools. For the purposes of this discussion, access is viewed as the means of approaching and entering into the use of dental services. Rather, access occurs when care is available and people are able and willing to utilize it. Not surprisingly, people in middle and high-income groups, those with extended education, and those who live in areas with abundant dental personnel have greater access to care. For individuals with meager incomes, especially those who live in areas with few dental personnel, access is more difficult. For individuals who have disabilities and other special problems, access to care can be exceedingly difficult. This chapter discusses the trends in dentistry, the status of dental health in America and identifies future challenges for the financing of and access to dental care, including: x Status of oral health in the United States; x Unmet needs for dental services and the major barriers that prevent some people from receiving the dental services that they need and want, and how these barriers can be reduced or eliminated; x Demand for dental services, changes in demand in recent years, and future patterns of demand; and, x How people pay for dental services, important trends in the demand for dental prepayment, and how changes in dental prepayment may impact use of dental services and access to dental services. As fewer Americans experience dental dis- decreases of 75-80% were achieved in all main cat- ease, and as the severity of the disease declines among egories of age, gender, poverty and race. Department of White children in the number of untreated dental Health and Human Services, 2000). Children have fewer dental caries than dramatic improvement both in the percent without ever before. Comparisons of findings from four caries, the average number of untreated carious per- national probability surveys demonstrate that the num- manent teeth, and in the extent of untreated caries ber of dental caries has declined substantially. As illustrated in first time, recent analysis shows reductions in caries also Figure 4. The number of poverty level compared to those above 300% of the untreated carious lesions has been reduced by almost poverty level narrowed substantially between one half since the early 1970s. Caries is the dental disease that historically has Although the condition of carious permanent engaged the most dental personnel and resources. A major purpose of this survey is to measure and monitor indicators of the nutrition and health status of the United States’ civilian, noninstitutionalized population. Among Children 6 to 18 Years Old at or Below the Poverty Level However, the extent and scope of Compared with Those with Income Above 300% of the Poverty Level the improvements are somewhat 2. This improvement occurred in both the group two to five Adults of all age groups are retaining more teeth. Despite the significant ments of two to ten year old children (African decrease in complete edentulism, almost 30% of the American and White, male and female). However, population over 65 years old are edentulous and the reduction in untreated decay among children aged will require substantial care. Nevertheless, treated and untreated caries) and the percent of important barriers impede access for too many people. Once the level A clear distinction must be drawn between of need is determined, the quantity of resources that demand and unmet need for services in order to should be devoted to such a social problem is then understand how future access to care is likely to determined based on a matching of unmet need and evolve and what interventions are likely to be effec- appropriate care. Epidemiological and health Unmet Need Approach for Determining Access to research in dentistry are designed to identify popu- Dental Services lation-based dental care problems such as segments of the population with unmet need. An under- The need-based approach uses normative judg- standing of the economic and social conditions sur- ments regarding the amount and kind of services rounding such groups, their reasons for not seeking required by an individual in order to attain or main- professional dental care, and the role that price tain some level of health. The level of unmet need plays in determining effective demand helps analysts in a society is usually determined from health level to identify weaknesses in the existing care system measurements based on epidemiological founda- and establish a foundation for effective remedies. All of these factors have enhanced the demand those who are willing and able to pay the den- for dental services. These individuals with diseases not as shown earlier, dental caries has been declining in treated in private practice are likely targets for almost all segments of the child population and to a new public policies intended to improve their lesser degree in adults up to about the age of 45 access to care. To be effective these new policies years (Brown, 1989; Brown et al, 2000a; Brown et must have the necessary resources to translate al, In Press). The pop- programs, too often such resources are inade- ulation 45 years of age and older experienced caries quate (Barnett and Brown, 2000). Due to changing disease patterns, the dental Since most dental care in the United States is sector is going through a transition from a service provided through private markets, an assessment mix that has been predominately therapeutic to a of the demand for dental services is important service mix that will be mostly preventive. Other factors that influence the level of demand Procedure 1959 1969 1979 1990 1999* include income, family size, Oral Examination 20. The decline in prepayment plans shape the demand for dental pre- amalgams is partly compensated by an increase dur- payment.
For each participant best copegus 200mg, we measure the dependent vari- able of number of errors made in recalling the list 200 mg copegus free shipping. A relationship is present here because a different and higher set of error scores occurs in each condition trusted 200mg copegus. Most experi- ments involve a much larger N, however, so to see the relationship buried in the raw scores, we compute a measure of central tendency. In our memory experiment, the variable of recall errors is a ratio variable that is as- sumed to form an approximately normal distribution. Therefore, we compute the mean score in each condition by computing the mean of the scores in each column. There- fore, to interpret the mean in any study, simply envision the scores that would typi- cally produce such a mean. For example, when X 5 3, envision a normal distribution of scores above and below 3, with most scores close to 3. Likewise, for each mean, essentially envision the kinds of raw scores shown in our columns. Thus, the means show that recalling a 5-item list resulted in one distribution located around three er- rors, but recalling a 10-item list produced a different distribution at around six errors, and recalling a 15-item list produced still another distribution at around nine errors. Further, we use the mean score to describe the individual scores in each condition. In Condition 1, for example, we’d predict that any participant would make about three errors. Most important is the fact that, by looking at the means alone, we see that a rela- tionship is present here: as the conditions change (from 5 to 10 to 15 items in a list), the scores on the dependent variable also change (from around 3, to around 6, to around 9 errors, respectively). For example, we might find that only the mean in the 5-item condition is different from the mean in the 15-item condition. We still have a relationship if, at least sometimes, as the conditions of the independent variable change, the dependent scores also change. For example, say that we study political party affiliation as a function of a person’s year in college. Our dependent variable is political party, a nominal variable, so the mode is the appropriate measure of central tendency. We might see that freshmen most often claim to be Republican, but the mode for sophomores is Democrat; for juniors, Socialist; and for seniors, Communist. These data reflect a relationship because they indicate that as college level changes, political affiliation tends to change. This tells us that the location Participants Recalling a of the distribution of incomes is dif- 5-, 10-, or 15-Item List ferent for each class, so we know The mean of each condition 4 that the income “scores” of individ- is under each column. Summarizing Research 75 Graphing the Results of an Experiment Recall that the independent variable involves the conditions “given” to participants so it is plotted on the X axis. However, be- cause we want to summarize the data, usually we do not plot the individual scores. Rather, we plot either the mean, median, or mode of the dependent scores from each condition. Note: Do not be confused by the fact that we use X to represent the scores when computing the means. The type of graph to select is determined by the characteristics of the independent variable. Line Graphs Create a line graph when the independent variable is an interval or a ratio variable. We use straight lines to connect the data points here for the same reason we did when producing polygons: Anytime the variable on the X axis in- volves an interval or ratio scale, we assume that it is a continuous variable and there- fore we draw lines. The lines show that the relationship continues between the points shown on the X axis. For example, we assume that if there had been a 6-item list, the mean error score would fall on the line connecting the means for the 5- and 10-item lists. Each mean implies a sample of scores and their corresponding data points are around—above and below—the mean’s data point. Because the vertical positions of the means change as the conditions change, we know that the raw scores also change, so a relationship is present. Notice that you can easily spot such a relationship because the different means pro- duce a line graph that is not horizontal. On any graph, if the summary data points form a line that is not horizontal, it indicates that the individual Y scores are changing as the X scores change, so a relationship is present. This implies that (as in the figure on the right) the individual scores stay the same regardless of the condition, so no relationship is present. Thus, on any graph, if the summary data points form a horizontal line, it indicates that the indi- vidual Y scores do not change as the X scores change, and so a relationship is not present. Bar Graphs Create a bar graph when the independent variable is a nominal or an ordinal variable. Notice that the rule here is the same as it was in Chapter 3: Create a bar graph whenever the X scores are nominal or ordinal scores.