By F. Georg. Cleary University.

The activity is much lower than Pathologic Changes: Increases are mainly due to that of alkaline phosphatase cheap soma 500 mg otc. Ovulation has been metabolic alkalosis and decreases due to metabolic shown to increase acid phosphatase activities order soma 350 mg mastercard. Copper Method: Atomic adsorption spectrophotometry after Reference Values for Adult Budgerigars: 21 to 26 direct dilution is the method of choice for determining mmol/l. In postmortem specimens, copper concen- samples on ice to stop the metabolism of the erythro- tration in the liver provides the best diagnostic sam- cytes. In birds, the effect of estrogens on copper Many factors can influence the color of avian urine. It can change with the ingestion of water-soluble vitamins (especially Vitamin B), the amount of uric Pathologic Changes: Copper intoxications will in- acid and feces mixed with the urine, the specific crease the serum level. Plasma Dye Clearance Test In many animal species, the hepatic uptake and The white crystalline portion of the urine in birds is excretion of different organic dyes injected intrave- seldom evaluated except for color. Pathologic Changes: Lead intoxication in some species may result in chocolate milk-colored urine In contrast, Bromsulphalein must be injected with and urates. This hemoglobinuria is common and nor- care, because perivascular injection causes severe mal for some nervous birds. In chickens, the clearance is markedly influ- that induced by chlamydia or Pacheco’s disease virus, enced by age and gender. Because many other severe clinical diseases cause this color to be present, it is not pathognomonic. Urinalysis Specific Gravity Urinalysis is indicated if renal disease is suspected. Normal: The specific gravity varies with the state of Polyuria is a common clinical presentation in com- hydration and with the individual bird. A refractometer can be used for this water is reabsorbed; by the intake of large amounts determination. Water deprivation should be used to of fluids (fruits, vegetables); by renal disease, neo- evaluate the kidney’s ability to concentrate low lev- plasia, diabetes, sepsis, toxins, adrenal disorders or els, often due to psychogenic polydipsia. In all of these cases, it is an increased loss of solute will create a low specific relatively easy to separate the urine from the feces gravity. This situation can be caused by intravenous via aspirating the liquid deposited on a water-resis- fluid therapy, hyperthyroidism, liver disease, pitui- tant surface. Transient polyuria can be induced by tary neoplasia, progesterone or glucocorticoid ther- administering water by crop tube. Any disease that causes polyuria and polydipsia result in urine production within 30 minutes after 73 can cause a low specific gravity. In pigeons, urine for analysis has concentrate or dilute the glomerular filtrate will lead been collected directly from the cloaca using a can- 26 to an increased specific gravity and severe renal nula. Normal com- stances that are on the border of this molecular panion birds produce a small quantity of urine, and weight cutoff are hemoglobin and albumin. Most if it can easily be collected it is generally abnormal other physiologic proteins have higher molecular (stress or disease). Most substances that are filtered by the companion bird species, but in other birds, such as kidneys are critical to normal bodily functions and ratites and Anseriformes, it is normally opaque, are completely reabsorbed (eg, amino acids, glucose, cloudy or slightly flocculent. The excretion or retention of other sub- stances are regulated according to the body’s needs. In diabetes mellitus, birds may have blood commercial test strips designed for use with human glucose concentrations above 800 mg/dl. It should be noted that the sensitivity of these tests has been adjusted to detect what would be Ketones regarded as abnormal levels of certain substances in Ketones should be absent from the urine of birds. These sensitivities are not necessarily significant shift in energy production from carbohy- applicable to birds and the fact that a “higher” read- drates to fats results in the increased oxidation of ing is obtained on an area of the test strip does not fatty acids and the production of intermediate meta- necessarily imply an abnormality. For example, alka- bolites that accumulate faster than they can be oxi- line urine can produce falsely elevated protein levels. Catabolic processes such as The color of the urine sample may also affect the severe hepatitis in combination with low blood glu- results of some test parameters. Birds fed Bilirubin large amounts of protein (carnivores) have an acidic Bilirubin is not normally present in birds. Biliverdin urine, while grain-eating birds have more alkaline is the major bile pigment, but will not react with the urine. Pathologic Changes: Companion birds with urine Urinary Urobilinogen pH lower than 5. Bacterial Pathologic changes would be expected in cases of metabolism tends to cause an alkaline pH. Compan- intravascular hemolysis and severe liver disease, but ion birds with papillomatosis and other disorders are seldom reported. Falsely high levels of urobilino- that typically cause tenesmus may have acidic urine. With hematuria, individual Pathologic Changes: Many renal disorders will re- erythrocytes lyse on the test area, giving individual sult in a mild to moderate proteinuria. If there is free pigment, the color sources of proteinuria include hematuria, hemoglo- change is uniform throughout.

There are five major concerns about the use of these agents by law enforce- ment: 1 buy 500mg soma mastercard. The potential for any ancillary exposure to health care providers 350 mg soma for sale, and to bystand- ers (1–4). Concern about the long-term effects from repeated exposure and from occupa- tional exposure (5). Some of these issues become more complicated because chemical con- trol agents are increasingly popular with civilians as readily available, often legal, self-defense weapons. There have been several incidents in the United States and in other coun- tries that question the appropriateness of use of chemical crowd-control agents (5,6). When used appropriately, crowd-control agents have a good safety mar- gin and generally do no permanent harm. Despite all of the controversy surrounding chemical control agents, they offer a less hazardous method of restraint than other potentially lethal alternatives, such as firearms. These agents are available in varying concentrations, with several vehicles, in aerosols or foams and in particulate form with dispersal devices. Essentially a means of less lethal chemical warfare, chemical crowd- control products are used as defensive agents to temporarily incapacitate indi- viduals or disperse groups without requiring more forceful means. These agents share common effects that include lacrimation, ocular irritation and pain, dermal irritation, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis, transient impairment of vision, and mild to moderate respiratory distress (11–13). Some corneal defects after exposure have been noted, but whether this is a direct tissue effect of the agent, the vehicle, or dispersant or a result of rubbing the ocular surface is unknown 182 Blaho-Owens (14). Other more severe effects, such as pulmonary edema, have been documented when con- centrations are several hundred-fold above what produces intolerable symp- toms or with trauma associated with the explosive device used to deliver the chemical agent (6,15). All of these clinical effects produced by chemical crowd-control agents render the recipient temporarily unable to continue violent action or resist arrest. Because they all share a high safety ratio, are effective at low concen- trations, and can be used without direct forceful contact by the law enforce- ment officer, they are ideal agents for control of either the individual offender or riot control. Because of their relative safety, these agents are generally excluded from international treaty provisions that address chemical weap- ons. The United States, England, Ireland, France, China, Korea, Israel, and Russia are just some examples of countries that use these compounds as riot control agents. The legal availability to law enforcement and the general pub- lic differs between countries; however, most can be easily obtained through international markets or ordered through the Internet. For large crowds, “bombs” have been devel- oped that can be dropped from aerial positions producing wide dispersal of the compound. They are also formulated in grenades or canisters, which can be propelled by either throwing or with a projectile device. The most common method of dispersal is by individual spray cans that deliver a stream, spray, or foam containing the agent. These individual dispersal units were designed to render immediate incapacitation to an offender without the use of more forceful methods, thereby providing an extra means of control in the ladder of force used by law enforcement. Canisters containing a lower concentration of the active ingredient have been marketed to civilians for personal protection. There is no formal training for civilians on securing the devices, laws governing their use, deployment, or decontamination after exposure. This lack of training signifi- cantly increases the risk for exposure and adverse events to the users, the intended target, and bystanders. The physi- ological effects of these mediators’ results in vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, pain, and altered neurotrophic chemotaxis. The oleoresin extract of capsicum contains more than 100 volatile compounds that act similarly to capsicum (16). Most patients complained of ocular irritation and irri- tation and pain at the exposure site. The most significant adverse effects were corneal abra- sions, which were treated with topical anesthetics and topical antibiotics. No patient required treatment for wheezing, and two of the five had a history of reactive airway disease. No patient in this study had significant morbidity or mortality, Crowd-Control Agents 185 B C Fig. The cause of in-custody deaths can be difficult to determine because many times these deaths have other confounding factors besides restraint and chemi- cal control agents. Risk factors for sudden death, such as mental illness, drug abuse, and seizure disorders, may not be readily visible, and autopsy reports can often be inconclusive or incomplete. All of the prisoners who died exhibited characteristics consistent with excited delirium from substance abuse. Most were obese, had hyperthermia, were violent, and had measurable cocaine on postmortem analysis. The lesson learned from these cases is that all violent prisoners, regardless of whether a chemical restraint has been used, should be closely monitored and evaluated by appropriate health care professionals. A small population of acutely intoxicated individuals is at risk of sudden death, independent of their treatment.

Subgroup F has Retroviridae are enveloped viruses with knobs on the been isolated from the Common Pheasant and the surface that form the outer part of membrane-asso- Green Pheasant soma 500 mg without prescription. Subgroup G is assumed to be differ- ciated protein spikes cheap 500mg soma with amex, which connect the capsid mem- ent from the chicken strains. The helical virion measures 90- recognized in Lady Amherst’s Pheasant, Golden 120 nm in diameter. Retrovirus is of an endogenous virus isolated from a Hungarian further characterized by a reverse transcriptase (re- Partridge. Endogenous viruses iso- provirus during viral replication, which takes place lated from the Mongolian Pheasant, Swinhoe Pheas- in the cytoplasm. Some retroviruses, particularly the ant, Painted Quail and chickens have not been clas- sarcomaviruses, have an incomplete genetic code and sified. The host spectrum is dependent on autosomally The helper viruses serve mainly for the development transmitted susceptibility or resistance of avian cells of the envelope, and in such cases the new envelope to receptors of avian retroviral subgroups (suscepti- can contain antigens from the helper virus. In addition to inducing neoplasms, avian viral strains that require a helper virus for replica- retrovirus can also be immunosuppressive, which is tion. Immuno- coma/mesenchymoma, chondroma, osteochondro- suppression is probably due to cessation of B-cell sarcoma, osteopetrosis, mesothelioma, endothe- maturation and a block in the development of T-cells, lioma, hemangioma, undifferentiated stem-cell leuk- possibly because of interference with the synthesis of osis, lymphoid leukosis, myeloblastosis/monocyte interleukin-2. Virus isolation has been suc- Subgroup A and B occur as common exogenous vi- cessful only within the order Phasianiformes. Some ruses (infective viruses released by host cells without neoplasms documented in captive-bred companion damage to the cell). Antibodies to subgroup A and B are Because many birds bred in captivity are endan- common among free-ranging wild fowl and domestic gered, more investigations are necessary in order to chickens. This neoplas- organs (mainly liver, spleen, kidneys) where macro- tic condition has been described in Gruiformes, scopic neoplasms are being developed. These tumors Sphenisciformes, Columbiformes, Psittaciformes, are usually malignant and ultimately kill the af- Strigiformes, Falconiformes, Cinconiiformes, Anati- fected bird. The patient’s general condition and blastosis has been diagnosed in a Sulphur-crested ability to fly are frequently undisturbed for a rela- Cockatoo. Abdominal enlargement and dysp- the Sulphur-crested Cockatoo, budgerigar, Turquoise nea caused by the space-occupying tumors can occur Parrot and Pacific Parrotlet. A massively distended liver may tosis has been observed in the Rufous-tailed Weaver be palpable. It is unclear if “erythre- smears, are frequently nondiagnostic because avian mic myelosis” in conures (hemorrhagic conure syn- leukosis rarely results in a leukemic blood picture (ie, drome)351 should be classified with this group of tu- tumorous blood cells or their precursors in the pe- mors. An increase in leukocytes (hetero- philia, lymphocytosis and monocytosis) is common. Osteopetrosis has been induced experimentally in In many instances, the lymphocytes are mature, but guineafowl chicks infected with a virus originating in Amazon parrots and chickens, bow-formed pseudo- from chickens. The albumen of the egg) or virus genome (also incom- latter is considered one cause of stunting in growing plete) in the haploid egg and semen cells is impor- chickens. Chicks infected as embryos or very early post- and spleen, more rarely the kidneys, subcutis, perior- natally remain viremic and do not produce antibodies bital cavity, heart, lungs, ovary, intestine and cloacal (immune tolerance). One method is based on location: erythrocyte-series Decisive age resistance is probably due to the regres- myeloblasts develop intravascularly, myeloblasts of sion of the cloacal bursa. Testosterone administra- tion decreases susceptibility and castration of males Diagnosis increases susceptibility. Plasma, serum and neoplastic tissues are best for Pathogenesis demonstrating the presence of virus. The virus can Depending on the type of oncogenic genes (erythro- also be isolated from oral washings, feces, feather blastosis, myeloblastosis, myelocytoblastosis), infec- pulp and from the albumen of freshly laid eggs. Sam- tions with oncogenic strains produce either very ples should be shipped immediately in cooled con- small foci of transformed B-lymphocytes (lymphoid tainers because the virus is heat labile. Histopathology reveals ence of a retrovirus can indirectly be determined by large numbers of erythroblasts in the sinus of the the demonstration of the reverse transcriptase from liver and in the pancreas. The drug Clinical pathology changes, bone marrow aspiration is anabolic and had no deleterious effect on egg pro- and histopathology are the only currently available duction. Administration of calcium can prolong the presence of the virus is a useful tool and should a bird’s life and may stabilize the patient’s condition. These include duction of virus-free flocks; however, this situation reticuloendotheliosis virus (Twiehaus),84,436 duck in- may increase the susceptibility of the flock. Periodic recurrence of eventually fatal ally, these viruses are associated with other neo- bleeding is characteristic of the disease. Calcium deficiencies are be- The natural hosts are probably turkeys and water- lieved to trigger the disease. Ex- Clinical Disease, Pathology and Diagnosis perimental infection is possible in pheasants and Epistaxis, dyspnea, severe weakness, intermittent guineafowl. Clinical pathologic changes include packed cell volume of approximately 26%, leukocytosis rep- Horizontal transmission occurs among young birds resented by heterophilia (84%), severe polychro- when viremic animals shed the virus via feces or in masia and anisocytosis, decrease of the total protein, body fluids. Mosquitos, particularly Culex annuli- hypoglycemia and hypocalcemia, elevated creatinine rostis, are reported to be capable of transmitting the and large numbers of immature erythrocytes in the virus after feeding on a viremic bird. The virus replicates primarily At necropsy, multiple pulmonary hemorrhage, devel- in the reticular and endothelial cells along the capil- opment of pseudocysts in the pectoral muscles and lary walls.

Continue to Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title but Without Separate Authors/Editors soma 500mg online. Citation Rules with Examples for One Volume of a Book Without Separate Authors/Editors Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference soma 350mg online. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Book (R) | Volume and Number (R) | Title (R) | Location (Pagination) (O) Book (required) General Rules for Book • Cite the overall book according to Chapter 2A Entire Books, but omit the Pagination Books 187 Volume and Number of Volume (required) General Rules for Volume and Number of Volume • Place volume and number information afer the title of the book and any Content Type, Type of Medium, Edition statement, or Secondary Author • Enter "Vol. When other names are used: • Abbreviate them and end the abbreviated words with a period Section = Sect. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following an edition statement 3. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following an edition statement and secondary authors 4. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors with numbers labeled other than volume 6. Volumes of non-English books without separate authors/editors Title of Volume (required) General Rules for Title of Volume • Enter the title of the volume as it appears in the book • Capitalize only the frst word of a title, proper nouns, proper adjectives, acronyms, and initialisms • End title information with a period Specific Rules for Title of Volume • Non-English titles for volumes • Titles containing a Greek letter, chemical formula, or another special character Box 61. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following an edition statement 3. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following an edition statement and secondary authors 192 Citing Medicine 4. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors with numbers labeled other than volume 6. Volumes of non-English books without separate authors/editors Location (Pagination) of Volume (optional) General Rules for Pagination of Volume • Place pagination afer the date of publication • Provide the total number of pages on which the text of the volume appears • Do not count pages for such items as introductory material, appendixes, and indexes unless they are included in the pagination of the text • Follow the number by a space and "p. Specific Rules for Pagination of Volume • Roman numerals for page numbers • Volumes continuously paginated Box 63. Many books published in multiple volumes with separate titles are paginated anew with each volume. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors continuously paginated Examples of Citations to Volumes of Books with a Separate Title for the Volume but Without Separate Authors/Editors 1. Pocket atlas of sectional anatomy: computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors following a content type Merbach W, Muller-Uri C. Volumes of books without separate authors/editors with numbers labeled other than volume Merbach W, Muller-Uri C. Volumes of non-English books without separate authors/editors Lagunas Rodriguez Z. Cytokine reference: a compendium of cytokines and other mediators of host defense. Sample Citation and Introduction to Citing Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors Te general format for a reference to a volume with a separate title and separate authors/ editors: Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/ Editors If each volume of a book in a multivolume set has its own author(s) or its own editor(s) distinct from the authors/editors of the set of volumes, the individual volume may be cited. Begin the reference with the authors or editors and title of the individual volume; cite the overall set of volumes as a series. Multivolume sets are bound alike with an essentially identical appearance and have one publisher. Te volumes in them are considered primarily as a part of the set and ofen, but not always, have the same date of publication or are published over a short span of years. Tis is in contrast to large open series such as Methods in Enzymology and Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences which have published hundreds of volumes over decades. Each volume in a multivolume set may have two title pages, one for the set and one for the individual volume. Use these title pages or their verso (back) for authoritative information to use in a citation. Continue to Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors. Continue to Examples of Citations to Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors. Citation Rules with Examples for Individual Volumes With a Separate Title and Separate Authors/Editors Components/elements are listed in the order they should appear in a reference. An R afer the component name means that it is required in the citation; an O afer the name means it is optional. Author/Editor (R) | Author Afliation (O) | Title (R) | Type of Medium (R) | Edition (R) | Editor and other Secondary Authors (O) | Place of Publication (R) | Publisher (R) | Date of Publication (R) | Pagination (O) | Physical Description (O) | Series (O) | Language (R) | Notes (O) Author/Editor for the Volume (required) General Rules for Author/Editor • List names in the order they appear in the text • Enter surname (family or last name) frst for each author/editor • Capitalize surnames and enter spaces within surnames as they appear in the document cited on the assumption that the author approved the form used. Tis rule ignores some conventions used in non-English languages to simplify rules for English-language publications.