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By H. Rocko. University of California, Santa Cruz. 2018.
In a managed care setting purchase meclizine 25 mg free shipping, population- based clinical practice includes the health of an enrolled population meclizine 25mg with amex. In a community- based setting, population-based clinical practice includes the health of a population in addition to the health of the individual patient through concern with resource allocation, epidemiology, and the care of patients whose needs are not currently met by the health care system. The concepts of rate, incidence, and prevalence to characterize the health of a population. How disease epidemiology in a community differs from that experienced in an office or hospital practice. How health care financing and health care delivery systems affect individual physicians, patients, and communities. How community and individual responses to health problems may be affected by both individual and community socio-cultural characteristics. Local government, social service, or community organizations that provide links between the underserved members of the community and the medical care systems. Defining and describing a population, its demography, culture, socioeconomic makeup, and health status. Identifying the unique characteristics of a population that affect the health of the population and individuals within that population. Considering how the socio-cultural characteristics of a particular community may affect that population’s attitudes toward health care. Using, in daily patient care, an understanding of the community and socio- cultural context that may affect an individual patient’s health care decisions and health-related behaviors. Reading critically clinical studies and applying findings to health care decisions involving real patients and populations of patients. Incorporating principles of disease prevention and behavioral change appropriate for specific populations of patients within a community. Using, when appropriate, local government, social service, and community organizations to improve the health of individuals and populations. Accessing and utilizing appropriate information systems and resources to help delineate issues related to population health. Show willingness to accept at least partial responsibility for the health of populations. Respond nonjudgmentally to an individual whose socio-cultural and community-based background result in seemingly counterproductive heath care decisions and health-related behaviors. Demonstrate ongoing commitment to self-directed learning regarding population/community health issues. Problems with cost and quality of care had usually been attributed to errors in individual decision making. In recent years, it has become clear that the individual does not function in isolation but within the context of a health care system and a health care team whose structure ranges from simple to complex. The way the system functions is critical to achieving high quality patient care, ensuring patient safety, reducing sources of errors in medicine, and promoting an environment that respects disclosure without blame. Furthermore, we have begun to focus on the patient as the center of the health care delivery system and to assess quality from the perspectives of the patient and the physician. With the patient as the center of the health care delivery system, the physician becomes a collaborative partner with other health professionals who share a common goal of providing safe, accessible, high quality, evidence-based care. The principles of clinical quality improvement, including the notion of variation in practice as a quality issue and the concept of medical care as a process which can be studied and improved. Principles of medical record organization in both inpatient and ambulatory settings. The importance of complete medical documentation in the context of measuring quality of care, avoiding redundancy, preventing medical errors, and improving patient safety. The need for a multidimensional approach to the assessment of quality, including the patient’s perspective of quality. The relationship of quality and cost in health care from the standpoint of the individual, health care systems, and society. Potential benefits and pitfalls of critical pathways/practice guidelines intended to improve the quality of care. Using patient education materials to facilitate patients’ participation in their own care. Using the medical records system efficiently to produce medical notes that communicate information clearly. Working collaboratively with other health professionals in the delivery of quality care. Assessing the patients’ needs from the standpoint of the individual, family, and community. Reporting patient safety concerns and medical errors to the appropriate individuals. Using resources, appropriate information systems, and the tenants of evidence-based medicine to assess systems-based practice issues. Recognize the importance of systems, particularly inter-professional collaboration, in delivering high quality patient care. Strive to improve the timeliness diagnostic and therapeutic decision making in order to improve quality of care, increase patient satisfaction, and reduce health care costs.
It serves to emphasize the drawn-out axis relative to the other less drawn-out axis purchase meclizine 25 mg. This visually exaggerates smaller changes in the axis that is drawn to the larger scale (Fig purchase 25mg meclizine overnight delivery. Therefore, both axes should have their vari- ables drawn to roughly the same scale (Fig. This makes the change in mean ﬁnal exam scores appear to be much greater (relatively) than 80 they truly are. Although the change in mean ﬁnal exam scores still appears to 80 be relatively greater than they truly are, the reader is notiﬁed that this distortion is occurring. This consists of the use of three-dimensional shapes to demon- strate the difference between two groups, usually the effect of a drug on a patient outcome. One example uses cones of different heights to demonstrate the dif- ference between the endpoint of therapy for the drug produced by the company and its closest competitor. Visually, the cones represent a larger volume than sim- ple bars or even triangles, making the drug being advertised look like it caused a much larger effect. This makes it appear as if the change in mean 80 ﬁnal exam scores occurred over a much shorter time period than in reality. The stem is made up of the digits on the left side of each value (tens, hundreds, or higher) and the leaves are the digits on the right side (units, or lower) of each number. Let’s take, for example, the following grades on a hypothetical statistics exam: Review of basic statistics 97 Fig. In creating the stem-and-leaf plot, ﬁrst list the tens digits, and then next to them all the units digits which have that ‘tens’ digit in common. This can be rotated 90◦ counterclockwise and redrawn as a bar graph or his- togram. The x-axis shows the categories, the tens digits in our example, and the y-axis shows the number of observations in each category. The y-axis can also show the percentages of the total that each observation occurs in each category. This shows the relationship between the independent variable, in this case the exam scores, and the dependent variable, in this instance the number of students with a score in each 10% increment of grades. As a rule, the author should attempt to make the contrast between bars on a histogram as clear as possible. The central line in the box is the median, the middle value of the data as will be described below. The box edges are the 25th and 75th percentile values and the lines on either side represent the limits of 95% of the data. Measures of central tendency and dispersion There are two numerical measures that describe a data set, the central tendency and the dispersion. There are three measures of central tendency, describing the center of a set of variables: the mean, median, and mode. In this equation, xi is the numeri- cal value of the i th data point and n is the total number of data points. These are extreme numbers on either the high or low end of the distribution that will produce a high degree of skew. There will not be a truly representative central value if the data are highly skewed and the mean can misstate the data. It makes more sense to 100 Essential Evidence-Based Medicine Fig. The mean should not be used for ordi- nal data and is meaningless in that setting unless the ordinal data has been shown to behave like continuous data in a symmetrical distribution. This is a common error and may invalidate the results of the experiment or portray them in a misleading manner. It should be used when deal- ing with ordinal variables or when the data are highly skewed. The mode is the most common value or the one value with the largest number of data points. It is used for describing nominal and ordinal data and is rarely used in clinical studies. The stan- dard error of the mean is a measure that describes the dispersion of a group of samples. It should be given whenever there is either a large spread of data values with many outliers or when the range is asymmetrical about the value of central tendency. The lowest quarter of values lie below the lower quartile or 25th percentile, the Review of basic statistics 101 lower half below the 50th percentile, and the lowest three-quarters below the upper quartile or 75th percentile. The interquartile range is the range of values from the 25th to the 75th percentile values. It is the average of the squares of the difference between each value and the mean or the sum of the squares of the difference between each value and the mean divided by n (the number of data points in the sample).
Treatment with which of the following is most likely to slow progression of this patient’s renal disease? A 50-year-old man is admitted to the hospital within 2 hours of the onset of nausea buy 25mg meclizine mastercard, vomiting buy discount meclizine 25 mg on-line, and acute crushing pain in the left anterior chest. Which of the following is the most appropriate management to decrease myocardial damage and mortality? A previously healthy 67-year-old woman comes to the physician with her husband because of a 4-month history of a resting tremor of her right arm. Her husband reports that her movements have been slower and that she appears less stable while walking. Examination shows increased muscle tone in the upper extremities that is greater on the right than on the left. Which of the following is the most likely explanation for this patient’s symptoms? A 47-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 4-week history of increased thirst and urination. Which of the following is the most likely underlying cause of this patient’s increased serum glucose concentration? A previously healthy 39-year-old woman is brought to the physician because of a tingling sensation in her fingers and toes for 2 days and rapidly progressive weakness of her legs. A previously healthy 77-year-old woman who resides in a skilled nursing care facility is brought to the emergency department 6 hours after the onset of acute midback pain that began while lifting a box. In addition to treating the pain, supplementation with which of the following is most likely to improve this patient’s underlying condition? A 52-year-old woman comes to the physician because of a 3-month history of diarrhea and intermittent abdominal pain that radiates to her back. A 67-year-old woman comes to the physician because of an 8-month history of progressive shortness of breath. The shortness of breath initially occurred only with walking long distances but now occurs after walking ¼ mile to her mailbox. She has had no chest pain, palpitations, orthopnea, or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Breath sounds are decreased, and faint expiratory wheezes are heard in all lung fields. A 22-year-old woman comes to the physician because of a 10-day history of pain in multiple joints. She first had pain in her right elbow, and then her right shoulder, and now has pain, redness, and swelling in her left knee that began 2 days ago. She is sexually active, and she and her partner use condoms for contraception inconsistently. Examination of the left knee shows warmth, erythema, tenderness, and soft-tissue swelling. The remainder of the examination, including pelvic examination, shows no abnormalities. Arthrocentesis of the knee joint yields 10 mL of cloudy fluid with a leukocyte count of 18,300/mm3 (97% segmented neutrophils). Microscopic examination of the leukocytes within the joint fluid is most likely to show which of the following? A 47-year-old woman comes to the physician for a routine health maintenance examination. The most appropriate recommendation is decreased intake of which of the following? A 32-year-old man comes to the physician because of a 12-day history of abdominal cramps and bloating, diarrhea, and flatulence. He says that he started a new exercise program 2 weeks ago and has been consuming a high quantity of yogurt bars, peanut butter, and protein- and calorie-enriched milk shakes to “bulk up. A 22-year-old college student comes to student health services because of a 7-day history of low-grade fever, sore throat, fatigue, and general malaise. One month ago, she had a painless vulvar ulcer that resolved spontaneously; she has been otherwise healthy. She is sexually active and has had three partners since the age of 15 years; she uses an oral contraceptive. Examination shows a rash over the palms and soles and mild cervical lymphadenopathy. D - 96 - Obstetrics and Gynecology Systems General Principles, Including Normal Age-Related Findings and Care of the Well Patient 1%–5% Pregnancy, Childbirth, & the Puerperium 40%–45% Preconception counseling and care Prenatal risk assessment/prevent Supervision of normal pregnancy Obstetric complications Labor and delivery Puerperium, including complications Newborn (birth to 4 weeks of age) Congenital disorders, neonatal Adverse effects of drugs on pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium Systemic disorders affecting pregnancy, labor and delivery, and the puerperium Female Reproductive System & Breast 40%–45% Normal processes, female function (eg, ovulation, menstrual cycle, puberty) Breast: infectious, immunologic, and inflammatory disorders Neoplasms of breast Female reproductive: infectious, Immunologic, and inflammatory disorders Neoplasms of cervix, ovary, uterus, vagina, and vulva Fertility and infertility Menopause Menstrual and endocrine disorders Sexual dysfunction Traumatic and mechanical disorders Congenital disorders Adverse effects of drugs on the female reproductive system and breast Endocrine System 1%–5% Other Systems, including Multisystem Processes & Disorders 5%–10% Social Sciences 1%–5% Communication and interpersonal skills Medical ethics and jurisprudence Physician Task Applying Foundational Science Concepts 8%–12% Diagnosis: Knowledge Pertaining to History, Exam, Diagnostic Studies, & Patient Outcomes 45%–50% Health Maintenance, Prevention & Surveillance 13%–17% Pharmacotherapy, Intervention & Management 20%–25% Site of Care Ambulatory 70%–75% Emergency Department 5%–10% Inpatient 15%–20% - 97 - 1. A 57-year-old woman comes to the physician 1 week after noticing a mass in her left breast during breast self-examination.
Therefore discount meclizine 25mg amex, a multi- disciplinary approach to surveillance involving a variety of professionals (e cheap meclizine 25mg on-line. In some cases, reports about sick wildlife from the general public can be the first indication that a larger incident of morbidity and/or mortality is about to occur. To a large extent, the robustness of a surveillance strategy relies on sampling an appropriately sized sample of the appropriate portion of the population. Skilled animal health personnel will be needed to determine sample sizes although for wildlife the wetland manager is likely to have a relatively good understanding of structures of wild populations and thus can help in the design and practicalities of achieving this target sample size. The problem of bias in surveillance strategies is less of an issue for domestic animals where it can be relatively straightforward to sample individuals randomly and in a stratified manner e. All wildlife trapping techniques have their own biases, surveillance from carcases may introduce a range of biases, e. Selection of sampling sites will primarily be dictated by the habitat preferences of the species to be sampled and occurrence of outbreaks in poultry although other factors such as bird and researcher safety, and project logistics should also be considered. Surveillance approaches Passive or ‘scanning’ disease surveillance: this involves examination of only clinically affected individuals, with no special effort being made to ‘seek out’ infected or diseased cases. This may involve the routine gathering of information on disease incidents from the general public, medical or veterinary professionals and laboratories dealing with routine cases. Passive surveillance may lead to significant under-reporting of diseases and should, therefore, be supplemented by active disease surveillance particularly for important animal diseases. Active disease surveillance: this involves proactive examination of individuals to actively seek out infection or disease, and targeted searching for evidence of disease in populations. Programmes may be broad-scale to capture any significant disease occurrences, targeted against specific high-threat diseases (e. International trade may also guide surveillance schemes to establish national and regional disease status, especially where it relates to public health and economic initiatives. For livestock diseases which are spread by the movement of infected animals, areas where animals are moving should be targeted for surveillance (e. The speed of information flow between different components of the disease surveillance system (immediate or routine). The rapidity of response required: immediate investigation of disease incidence or routine and regular analysis of data with subsequent adjustments to control activities when required. For a disease surveillance strategy to act as an early warning system, reporting, decision-making and response must be rapid. However, for endemic diseases, it may be more appropriate to evaluate the routine data collected to adjust or target control activities. National surveillance systems should include an integral approach and accommodate all needs. It may beIt may be possible to link and integrate severalpossible to link and integrate several different surveillance systems. The following functions may supporttions may support surveillance systems: setting of standards (e. The key components of aThe key components of a surveillance and monitoring system. The following tasks are recommended for improving animal disease surveillance:The following tasks are recommended for improving animal disease surveillance: 1. Identify key stakeholders and organisations relevant toIdentify key stakeholders and organisations relevant to the site state or local veterinarian or animal health officer (will most likely be lead person inveterinarian or animal health officer (will most likely be lead person inveterinarian or animal health officer (will most likely be lead person in regional surveillance effort)surveillance effort) public health contact veterinary diagnostic laboratoriesic laboratories. Identify relevant animal diseases for the siteIdentify relevant animal diseases for the site notifiable animal diseasesdiseases wildlife animal diseases zoonoses. Familiarisation with country responses with reference to potential disease outbreaks at the site. Establish standardised report forms for disease surveillance including definitions such as “confirmed” and “suspected”. Identify and collaborate with ongoing animal disease surveillance efforts at other wetland sites and government Ministries or Departments e. Identify efficient and effective communication channels with the relevant health authorities and laboratories and other wetland stakeholders and include opportunities for feedback. Prioritising diseases for surveillance The following factors should be considered when determining which diseases to prioritise for surveillance: Whether the disease is of public health or agricultural importance. Whether the disease is a specific target of a local, regional, national or international control programme. Whether the information to be collected will lead to significant successful human/animal health action. Communicable Disease Management Protocol Manual: Communicable disease surveillance. Climate change and the expansion of animal and zoonotic diseases: What is the Agency’s contribution? Wild birds and avian influenza: an introduction to applied field research and disease sampling techniques. Planning an integrated disease surveillance and response system: a matrix of skills and activities.
Lactating women with these protein intakes appear to adapt by down-regulating protein metabolism (Motil et al order meclizine 25mg amex. The factorial approach is utilized for determining the protein require- ment during lactation discount 25mg meclizine free shipping. In this approach, it is assumed that the process of lactation does not alter the maintenance protein requirement of the nonlactating woman and that the protein and amino acid requirements are increased in proportion to milk production. It is important to empha- size that human milk is characterized by a relatively high concentration of nonprotein nitrogenous substances, which contribute approximately 20 to 27 percent of total milk nitrogen (Butte et al. Whether this merely reflects a diversion of urea loss from urine (plus some colonic fermentation) to milk is not known, but in the calculations it is assumed that part of the increased nitrogen needs of the lactating woman will of necessity be derived from her dietary protein. The additional protein requirement for lactation therefore is defined as the output of total protein and nonprotein nitrogen in milk. This table shows the factorial estimate of the increase in protein requirement associated with lactation and assumes that the incremental efficiency of nitrogen utilization of 0. It is assumed that the cost of making protein for maintenance requirements is the same as that for growth and lactation. When the absolute increase was converted to weight-specific intakes by using the reference weights of adolescent girls 14 to 18 years (54 kg) and adult women 19 to 50 years (57 kg) from Chapter 1 (Table 1-1), the numbers were quite close, so the highest value (that for the 14- to 18-year-old category) is provided as the overall recom- mendation. Adding the average requirement for additional protein needed is calculated as +21. Again, given the closeness of the values, one value is recommended for all age groups. Whether or not this is true has significance not only for athletes, but also for those with muscle wasting who wish to preserve muscle mass by training, such as elderly or immobile adults, or those suffering from muscle-wasting dis- eases. The available literature includes studies of both resistance (body- building) and endurance training. Endurance training does not result in muscle building, which would increase muscle protein deposition, but it is well recognized that endurance exercise is accompanied by an increase in the oxidation of branched chain amino acids (Lemon et al. However, these were acute studies performed around the time of the exercise itself, and did not take into account the remaining part of the day. An examination of leucine oxidation over a 24-hour period, including exercise during each of the fed and fasting periods, showed that the increase in oxidation, although statistically significant, was small in relation to the total daily amount of oxidation (4 to 7 percent) (El-Khoury et al. Moreover, the increase in leucine oxidation was proportionally similar with diets containing 1 or 2. Neither leucine nor nitrogen balance was significantly negative, suggesting that the exercise did not compromise body protein homeostasis at either level of protein intake. Although no control group without exercise was studied, the results were similar to those reported previously from individuals at an intake of 1 g/kg/d of protein undergoing the same experimental proce- dures without exercise (El-Khoury et al. Similarly, a study designed to determine the protein requirement of endurance-trained men led to an average requirement estimate in young and older men of 0. However, as no controls without exercise were included in the study, it is not possible to conclude that the exercise led to a higher protein requirement. The effects of resistance training on nitrogen bal- ance have been investigated in older adults (8 men and 4 women, aged 56 to 80 years) at one of two levels of protein intake, 0. Before training began, the mean corrected nitro- gen balance was not significantly different from zero in the three men and three women receiving the lower protein intake, and was positive in the five men and one woman receiving the higher intake, suggesting a require- ment about 0. However, after 12 weeks of resistance training, nitrogen balance became more positive by a similar amount at the two intakes, which the authors suggested was the result of an increased effi- ciency of protein retention that was more pronounced in those on the lower protein diet as a percent of protein intake. In particular, the improve- ment in nitrogen balance was independent of the protein intake. A similar study was performed by Lemon and coworkers (1992), which compared protein intakes of 1. However, this estimate of requirement cannot be taken as realistic, because the positive nitrogen balance of 8. Measure- ments of body composition showed no changes in lean body mass, creatinine excretion, or biceps muscle nitrogen content in either dietary group. In addition, although there were increases in some measurements of strength, there was no effect attributable to diet. Therefore, the available data do not support the conclusion that the protein requirement for resistance training individuals is greater than that of nonexercising subjects. In view of the lack of compelling evidence to the contrary, no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise. Plant proteins are generally less digestible than animal proteins; however, digestibility can be altered through processing and preparation. Therefore, consuming a varied diet ensures an adequate intake of protein for vegetarians. Adult vegetarians consume less protein in their diet than non- vegetarians (Alexander et al. However, only one of these studies indicated that total protein intakes of 10 of the 25 vegan women were potentially inadequate (Haddad et al. As was shown in Table 10-13, the nitrogen requirement for adults based on high- quality plant food proteins as determined by regression analysis was not significantly different than the requirement based on animal protein or protein from a mixed diet. In conclusion, available evidence does not support recommending a separate protein requirement for vegetarians who consume complementary mixtures of plant proteins.