By E. Moff. State University of New York College at Plattsburgh.
It is this tonic DA the magnitude of increase in action potential-dependent DA compartment that is sampled by slower measures of DA release into the accumbens that occurs in response to a chal- dynamics discount 1mg prograf otc, such as microdialysis buy prograf 1 mg on-line. Recently cheap prograf 1mg on-line, evidence has lenge may be augmented when the PFC DA response is been advanced to define what factors may contribute to the attenuated (39). Repeated stress also has important clinical implications Although studies suggest that neuronal impulse flow is with regard to the DA system and exacerbation of schizo- necessary for DA overflow in the striatum, there is substan- phrenia. A recent study examined how chronic stress in the tial evidence that the released DA can be controlled locally form of cold exposure affects the discharge of VTA DA by a number of factors. Thus, after exposing rats to cold, there was a 64% inputs increases DA release within the striatum, and evi- decrease in the number of spontaneously active DA neurons, dence suggests that this can occur via afferents to DA cell with no significant alteration in their average firing rate. Thus, infusion of hibited excessive burst activity in the exposed rats (40). It is proposed that this subicular-driven DA re- striatum. Thus, implantation of a microdialysis probe was lease may be involved in the modulation of investigatory found to disrupt DA neuron depolarization block when DA response to novel and conditioned stimuli (45). Stimulation cell activity was assessed 24 hours following probe implanta- of the PFC also appears to result in impulse-dependent DA tion. However, if the probe was inserted via a preimplanted release in the striatum (28). On the other hand, there is guide cannula, depolarization block was maintained, and evidence suggesting that DA can be released in a manner the DA levels were found to be approximately 50% less not dependent on DA neuron firing via stimulation of the than in control conditions. Moreover, the relationship be- hippocampal afferents (46), or amygdala afferents (47) to tween DA neuron firing and release was altered. Thus, al- the accumbens, all of which use glutamate as a transmitter. There is also evidence that glutamate can release chronic antipsychotic drug (60). Thus, correlations between acetylcholine or serotonin in the striatum, which in turn cell firing patterns and DA levels postsynaptically appear to can trigger DA release (43). Glutamate may also stimulate depend on the state of the system. DA release via an action on other local systems, such as It is also possible that there may be local fluctuations in those producing NO. NO is known to be released from tonic DA stimulation that may be a consequence of in- striatal interneurons containing the enzyme NOS, and exert creases in DA neuron firing. Indeed, studies using voltamet- actions on neuronal elements in the vicinity of the release ric measures have shown that brief elevations in extracellular site. Infusion of NOS substrates or NO generator com- DA may occur as a consequence of rapid burst firing, over- pounds was found to facilitate the release of both glutamate whelming the DA uptake process (61). This relationship is and DA within the striatum in a calcium-dependent man- particularly important during administrations of drugs that ner, and is dependent on vesicular stores (52,53). Moreover, interfere with the uptake process, such as cocaine or amphet- the NO-induced efflux of striatal glutamate was found to amine (57,58). Such drugs would cause phasic DA release indirectly enhance extracellular DA levels in the striatum to rapidly augment tonic DA levels, leading to high extracel- in a manner dependent on NMDA and AMPA receptors lular DA and abnormal levels of down-regulation of spike- (53,54). Therefore, it is likely that excitatory amino acids dependent DA release. In a similar nature, in mice lacking and NO interact with DA neuron firing to regulate DA the DA transporter, the extracellular DA is already elevated release from presynaptic sites within the striatum. This tonic/ extracellular DA and glutamate within the striatum (55), phasic balance has been proposed to underlie normal and which would thereby increase in the behavioral response to dysfunctional DA regulation as it relates to the pathophysi- amphetamine (56). Thus, evidence indicates that alterations ology of schizophrenia, drug abuse, and the treatment of in tonic DA levels produced by cortical afferents can po- ADHD (44,57,58). Such tonic down- literature has emerged regarding the functional relevance of modulation of spike-dependent DA release could play a extrasynaptic DA receptors. Indeed, studies have shown that particular role when the uptake system is inactivated by in the PFC, the DA terminals located in the deep layers of psychostimulants. Thus, although the DA transporter is cortex do not contain DA transporters (63). As a conse- normally highly effective at removing DA from the synaptic quence, the DA released from these sites would be free to cleft before it can escape into the extracellular space, block- diffuse to a much greater extent than in areas such as the ade of the DA transporter would allow substantially higher striatum and accumbens. This is further substantiated by levels of DA to escape the cleft and contribute to the tonic evidence that a substantial portion of the DA that is released extracellular DA pool (57). Such a condition is thought to in the PFC is actually taken up and deaminated in norepi- underlie some of the therapeutic actions of psychostimu- nephrine (NE) terminals (64). This arrangement would lants in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have substantial functional implications. This was found to be a significant issue when testing Moreover, such a condition could imply that NE uptake Chapter 9: Dopamine 123 blockers could serve to increase the functional actions of DA in the PFC by preventing its removal via NE terminals.
He was later met by the author in a specialized dementia unit 1 mg prograf overnight delivery. INITIAL COGNITIVE TESTING Neuropsychological testing has a place in the comprehensive assessment of many people with dementia cheap prograf 1mg amex. In the initial assessment buy 1mg prograf with visa, a simple tool allows a degree of quantification. Abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) The AMTS (Hodkinson, 1972) is probably the briefest. If the patient scores 6 or less correctly, there is a need for further assessment. Make sure the patient is not delirious and is able to attend to the task. Give the patient an address, and ask him or her to repeat it at the end of the test What is the year? What is the name of the hospital or number of the residence where the patient is situated? Can the patient recognize two persons (the doctor, nurse, home help, etc. In which year did the First World War begin (adjust this for a world event the patient would have known during childhood)? What is the name of the present monarch (head of state, etc. Mini mental state examination (MMSE) The mini mental state examination (MMSE; Folstein et al, 1975) is the most commonly used cognitive screening test. It is a 30-point questionnaire which samples memory and orientation, language and constructional skills. Make sure the patient is not delirious (can attend to the task at hand) and has no visual, hearing or physical difficulties. The MMSE • Orientation in time: what is the year, month, date, season, day of the week? Also, there may be delusions Frontotemporal dementia Either of the following: (FTD) 1. Decline in regulation of personal or interpersonal conduct (loss of empathy for others; socially inappropriate behavior that are rude, sexually explicit; mental rigidity; decline in personal hygiene; obsessional behaviors), or 2. Impaired reasoning or handling of complex tasks, out of proportion to impairments of recent memory or spatial ability. Also, there is often rapid decline in language skills Pridmore S. American Journal of Psychiatry 1998; 154 (Supplement 5), 1-39. Early and presenting symptoms of dementia with Lewy Bodies. Promoter DNA methylation regulates progranulin expression and is altered in FTLD. Is there a role for physical activity in preventing cognitive decline in people with mild cognitive impairment? Racial differences in the progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. Endogenous and exogenous estrogen, cognitive function, and dementia in postmenopausal women. Brain morphology in older African Americans, Caribbean Hispanics, and whites from northern Manhattan. Neuro pathological staging of Alzheimer-related changes. Time until institutionalization and death in patients with dementia. Another nail in the coffin of the cognitive paradigm of dementia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews 2016, in press. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Next-generation sequencing reveals substantial genetic contribution to dementia with Lewy bodies. Evaluation of a mental test score for assessment of mental impairment in the elderly. The prevalence and incidence of Dementia with Lewy Bodies.
There have been 30 systematic reviews and meta-analyses (Loo et al buy generic prograf 1mg on line, 2003; Fitzgerald et al generic prograf 1mg fast delivery, 2003) order prograf 1 mg. There have also been naturalistic studies which have demonstrated the effectiveness of TMS in the treatment of medication resistant MDD in the real-life clinic (Galletly et al, 2014). Many professional and service bodies endorse TMS as a treatment of medication resistant MDD - to list them all would exceed the reference limit. Prominent examples include the American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2010), Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (Milev et al, 2016) and an especially commissioned Pridmore S. Among others are the Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK, and the international World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. Recent studies have found a distinct anti-depressant advantage for ECT (Berlim et al, 2014). However, patients prefer TMS, which is more cost effective than medication (Nguyen et al, 2015) and ECT (Magnezi et al, 2016). Other psychiatric disorders Some years ago, there was much enthusiasm for treating a range of psychiatric disorders with TMS. Unfortunately, any benefit seems very modest for auditory hallucinations (He et al, 2017), negative symptoms of schizophrenia (Wang et al, 2017) and obsessive convulsive disorder (Zhou et al, 2017). Other medical disorders A role for rTMS in the treatment or chronic pain (a major public health problem) was suggested by Pridmore & Oberio in 2000. Lefaucheur et al (2014) found treatment of chronic pain with fast rTMS over the motor cortex contralateral to the pain to have definite efficiency. References American Psychiatric Association (2010) Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, 3rd Edition. Accelerated HF-rTMS in treatment-resistant unipolar depression. World Journal of Biological Psychiatry 2014; 15: 286-297. Efficacy and acceptability of high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation versus electroconvulsive therapy for major depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation as a treatment for psychiatric disorders: a comprehensive review. Belmaker Eds, Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neuropsychiatry (pp. Chen R, Classen J, Gerloff C, Celnik P, Wassermann E, Cohen L. Depression of motor cortex excitability by low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation. Possible mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clarke B, Upton A, Kamath M, Al-Harbi T, Castellanos C. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for migraine: clinical effects. Follow-up study of children whose mothers were treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation during pregnancy: preliminary results. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of depression: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Daily repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves mood in depression. George M S, Nahas Z, Molloy M, Speer A, Oliver N, Li X-B, Arana G, Risch S, Ballenger J. A Controlled trial of daily left prefrontal cortex TMS for treating depression. Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation therapy for major depressive disorder. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. Frontostriatal connectivity changes in major depressive disorder after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on regional brain activity in depressed patients. Klein E, Kreinin I, Chistyakov A, Koren D, Mecz L, Marmur S, Ben-Shachar D, Feinsod M. Therapeutic efficiency of right prefrontal slow repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in major depression: a double blind controlled trial.
Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library proven prograf 1 mg, National Institute for Health Research proven 1mg prograf, Evaluation cheap 1mg prograf with visa, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. EME HS&DR H TA PGfAR PHR Part of the NIHR Journals Library www. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health Published by the NIHR Journals Library . Self-care support for children and adolescents with long-term conditions: the REfOCUS evidence synthesis. Health Services and Delivery Research ISSN 2050-4349 (Print) ISSN 2050-4357 (Online) This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) (www. Print-on-demand copies can be purchased from the report pages of the NIHR Journals Library website: www. 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Objectives: To determine which models of self-care support for long-term conditions (LTCs) are associated with significant reductions in health utilisation and costs without compromising outcomes for children and young people. Population: Children and young people aged 0–18 years with a long-term physical or mental health condition (e. Intervention: Self-care support in health, social care, educational or community settings. Outcomes: Generic/health-related quality of life (QoL)/subjective health symptoms and health service utilisation/costs. Design: Randomised/non-randomised trials, controlled before-and-after studies, and interrupted time series designs. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ISI Web of Science, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, The Cochrane Library, Health Technology Assessment database, Paediatric Economic Database Evaluation, IDEAS, reference scanning, targeted author searches and forward citation searching. All databases were searched from inception to March 2015. Methods: We conducted meta-analyses, simultaneously plotting QoL and health utilisation effects. We conducted subgroup analyses for evidence quality, age, LTC and intervention (setting, target, delivery format, intensity). Results: Ninety-seven studies reporting 114 interventions were included. Thirty-seven studies reported adequate allocation concealment. The vast majority of included studies recruited children and young people with asthma (n = 66, 68%). This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals provided that v suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. Self-care support was associated with statistically significant, minimal benefits for QoL [effect size (ES) –0.
OVERVIEW OF STUDY DESIGN buy 1mg prograf visa, METHODOLOGY AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT Community resources Health services Self-care/management support Social care • Multidisciplinary services • Biopsychosocial Practice Social (needs) • Promotion and team resources prevention focused Activated purchase prograf 1mg, health-literate patient/public FIGURE 2 A model for chronic care management buy discount prograf 1 mg line. Following a half-day of training in use of the PCAM tool, nurses were encouraged to use the PCAM tool with 10 patients to gain confidence in its use before starting the formal implementation phase. Intervention sites were supported by the project team to assist with embedding the PCAM tool into routine practice and to support clinic participation in the research study. The Patient Centred Assessment Method tool The PCAM tool involves nurses making an assessment of their patient in each of the following domains: l health and well-being (covering physical health needs, the impact of physical health on mental health, lifestyle behaviours, mental well-being) l social environment (covering home safety and stability, daily activities, social networks and financial resources) l health literacy and communication (covering understanding of symptoms, self-care and healthy behaviour and how engaged the patient is in discussions) l service co-ordination (how comprehensively, and efficiently, health and social care services currently meet patient needs). These then lead to action-oriented tasks to deal with the identified problem, which may include referral or signposting to other professionals or agencies. They also learned about the comorbidity of physical and mental ill health, building a picture of why it is important to conduct biopsychosocial assessment and address broader health needs. For more detailed information about the PCAM training, see Appendix 3. Patient Centred Assessment Method resource pack The PCAM resource pack is a list of local, regional or national groups, organisations and information sources for use by PNs as potential signposting/referral opportunities for patients with LTCs. Referral and signposting opportunities presented within the resource packs were those covering psychosocial problems within the PCAM domains. For more detailed information about the PCAM resource pack, see Appendix 4. Until April 2016 in Scotland, this was guided by the requirements of the QOF for LTCs, such as DM and CHD. During the development of this study and its funding, the QOF requirement for screening for mental health problems in LTCs was removed, but nurses could still, and indeed were encouraged by NICE guidelines to, include some attention to mental health and well-being in their annual assessments. Normal referral systems or pathways of care would be maintained for patients in the CAU practices. Research ethics A favourable ethics opinion for the overall study was granted by the West of Scotland Research Ethics Committee [reference number 14/WS/1161; Integrated Research Application System (IRAS) 168310]. Individual site approvals were then obtained from NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde (NHS GGC), NHS Forth Valley (NHS FV) and NHS Grampian. All changes to the protocol were reported to the Research Ethics Service and approved as minor amendments. We ensured that all accompanying documentation sent to the NHS Ethics Committee was produced in partnership with the Health and Social Care Alliance Scotland (the ALLIANCE), which represents nearly 400 bodies and individuals working to make the lives of people with LTCs and disabilities, and the lives of unpaid carers, better. More than three-quarters of its member organisations are voluntary groups that support or represent disabled people, people living with LTCs and unpaid carers. We also recruited two PPI representatives early in this process to enable them to contribute to all study documentation prepared for the NHS Ethics Committee (letters of invitation, information and consent forms, etc. These PPI representatives also served on our project management group (PMG) throughout the study. Patient and public involvement Our aims for PPI were to conduct research with members of the public, taking on board their expert advice in the design and conduct of our study, especially in relation to the presentation of our study and its materials to our patient/public/carer audience (through commenting on, and developing, research materials); ensuring continued input to the conduct of the research as members of a project steering group; and ensuring that our dissemination strategy and our key messages were clear and targeted appropriately for patient/public/carer audiences. This would ensure that the language and content of information provided were appropriate and accessible (e. This issue may be freely reproduced for the purposes of private research and study and extracts (or indeed, the full report) may be included in professional journals 11 provided that suitable acknowledgement is made and the reproduction is not associated with any form of advertising. Applications for commercial reproduction should be addressed to: NIHR Journals Library, National Institute for Health Research, Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre, Alpha House, University of Southampton Science Park, Southampton SO16 7NS, UK. OVERVIEW OF STUDY DESIGN, METHODOLOGY AND GENERAL MANAGEMENT methods proposed for the study were more acceptable and sensitive to the situations of potential research participants; and our research would capture outcomes that are important to the public, and we would ensure that the findings of our research were accessible to the public. This amounted to three levels of public involvement (out of a possible six) endorsed by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), namely as joint grant holders or co-applicants on a research project, as members of a project advisory or steering group and commenting on and developing patient information leaflets or other research materials. However, we also included a further level around enhancing dissemination activity and outputs, especially for public audiences. Patient and public involvement in preparing this application was provided via the ALLIANCE. The ALLIANCE is the national third-sector intermediary for a range of health and social care organisations. It has over 1700 members, including large, national support providers, as well as small, local volunteer-led groups and people who are disabled, living with LTCs or providing unpaid care. Our key contact within the ALLIANCE was a full partner on this project and also shared the protocol with ALLIANCE members. They commented on the proposal during its development and specifically on issues of recruitment of patients, and the feasibility of patient data collection processes. They also provided current experiences of members of their health assessments in primary care to inform the feasibility and applicability of the research. Three patient representatives were recruited to the study on a formal basis; two attended all PMG meetings and another commented on all documentation provided to the Study Steering Committee (SSC). One member of the PMG was already known to the project team from PPI in a previous study led by the RCGP. The second member of the PMG was recruited via an e-mail from NHS FV to its PPI advisors, and the PPI member recruited to the SSC was recruited in the same way.
Numerous studies have been The regulations specify who is eligible for treatment quality 1mg prograf, proce- conducted since the mid-1970s to determine the optimal dures that are required for its administration order 1mg prograf with visa, the number dose discount 1mg prograf mastercard, and, although it is clear that some patients do well of take-home doses permitted, and the type of medication on low doses of methadone or LAAM (about 20 to 50 mg), storage security needed. Treatment programs have been in- studies have consistently shown that most patients need spected approximately every 3 years for the past 30 years, higher doses if they are to achieve maximum benefit from and violations have resulted in sanctions ranging from ad- agonist treatment (25). The results of these methadone dose ministrative citations to criminal prosecution. Clinics are clinical response have not been observed consistently. One often located in old buildings that have been converted to study found significant correlations between oral dose and comply with regulations but that were never intended for methadone concentration, but only among patients who medical use. At the present time, it is estimated that approxi- complained of low dosing (26). These findings suggest that mately 179,000 patients are being maintained on metha- some patients may be more sensitive to dosage changes and done or LAAM at 940 or more sites, and this number repre- that clinical response, including subjective complaints, is a sents only about 20% of the opioid addicts in the United more important guide to adequate dose levels than specific States (21). No controlled studies have been done examin- This treatment-program regulatory system has been ing doses higher than 120 mg; thus, the upper limits of under increasing criticism since the early 1990s. Criticism dosing effectiveness are not well understood. The importance approved for detoxification or maintenance that are in of these criticisms has been underlined by the recent increase Schedules III, IV, and V (27). Physicians who choose to in heroin addiction (22), by evidence that methadone main- treat persons with opioid dependence under the new regula- tenance reduces the incidence of hepatitis and HIV infec- tions will need to notify the Secretary of Health and Human tion, and by the lack of coverage for agonist maintenance Services in writing of their intent and to show that they 1510 Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress are qualified to provide addiction treatment by virtue of prenorphine for its own positive subjective effects (33,34). No physician would be allowed Only one study published to date has characterized the be- to treat more than 30 patients at one time without special havioral and physiologic effects of a wide range of buprenor- approval, according to the legislation as it is now proposed. The re- This change in the regulations will be especially impor- sults indicated that buprenorphine, given intravenously, has tant for buprenorphine and the buprenorphine-naloxone a low abuse liability in this population. The to be treated in the current methadone or LAAM system. Parenteral misuse of of medical care, to make it more readily available, and to the combination by persons addicted to opioids would be improve its quality. Buprenorphine is marketed internationally as an combination product in an office-based setting represents analgesic (both without naloxone and with naloxone to an innovative alternative to the restrictive methadone or deter abuse) and as a treatment for opioid addiction. The most widespread use of buprenorphine is in France, where use of this new drug combination should expand the avail- it was approved for the latter indication in 1996. In the ability of agonist maintenance treatment with a relatively United States, buprenorphine is currently approved only low risk for abuse or diversion. In addition, the partial ago- as an analgesic for parenteral administration; approval for nist activity of buprenorphine results in a much lower risk of opioid addiction treatment is pending. Buprenorphine has overdose death than is the case with methadone or LAAM. Most of the Antagonist Maintenance early clinical trials used a sublingual solution of buprenor- phine formulated in a hydroethanolic vehicle, although a Naltrexone is the prototypical opioid antagonist used in more commercially suitable sublingual tablet formulation abstinence maintenance therapy; this drug blocks the effects is now used. Naltrexone has no opioid agonist effects and is full agonists such as methadone and LAAM is the plateau a competitive opioid antagonist. It is orally effective and effect of -agonist activity. Parenteral doses as high as 12 can block opioid effects for 24 hours when administered as mg intravenously (28) have been given to opioid-intolerant a single daily dose of 50 to 60 mg. Higher doses usually patients with only limited adverse effects (e. Numerous large trials have con- they will provide more cross tolerance to heroin and other firmed the utility of buprenorphine for agonist maintenance opioids during the 24-hour dosing period (38). These studies have included comparisons of bu- favorable adverse event profile (nausea is typically the most prenorphine with placebo (29,30), a buprenorphine-nalox- common side effect), naltrexone is generally not favored by one combination with placebo (30), and a multiple-dose opioid addicts because, unlike opioid agonists and partial comparison study (31). In one of the most recent trials (32), agonists, it produces no positive, reinforcing effects. Fur- buprenorphine (given three times weekly) was compared thermore, it may be associated with the precipitation of an with LAAM (given three times weekly) and methadone opioid withdrawal syndrome if it is used too soon after (given daily) in a 17-week study. Mean retention in treat- opioid use stops, an effect that can be minimized by admin- ment was higher for buprenorphine, LAAM, and high-dose istering a naloxone challenge test before giving naltrexone. Opioid- more than 25 years, work continues on increasing medica- positive urine samples decreased most for the LAAM-treated tion compliance and improving outcomes. Some of these group and least for low-dose methadone. Patient self-reports more recent efforts include work to develop a depot form of opioid use did not differ among the groups, but they that will block opioid effects for 14 to 28 days. This dosage showed decreases of about 90% over the course of the study. At present, a Buprenorphine has the potential to be abused and can patient treated with naltrexone has only to stop the medica- produce addiction. However, most persons who abuse bu- tion for 1 to 3 days to experience the full effects of subse- prenorphine initiated opioid use with other drugs.
Drawing on the experience of other countries order 1 mg prograf visa, and especially Mexico generic 1 mg prograf overnight delivery, the commit- tee drafted a government policy on research for health and set up the first National Council of Research for Health order prograf 1 mg fast delivery. As part of the drive to improve health research, all research institutions in the country are under evaluation. An online database of researchers has been created, and only registered researchers are eligible for funding from the Council of Science and Technology. The database provides information about the training of researchers, their experience, and current research topics. The intention is to manage dedicated funding through a health research trust and to allocate these funds transparently on merit. As in Guinea Bissau, the support of the Minister of Health backed by the President of Paraguay has been a key factor in the development of a national health research system. Examples of eforts to build research capacity, ranging from individual to global movements Supranational health research bodies National health research systems Organizational development Institutional development National health research councils Individual training WHO / TDR US NIH Wellcome Trust TDR, Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases; US NIH, United States National Institutes for Health. Adapted, by permission of the publisher, from Lansang & Dennis (52). Te decision to build and strengthen research any setting depends on the strategic vision for capacity, and to allocate the necessary funds, is the research and what is needed from research. Tus the Task Force on Malaria Research include a skilled and self-confdent workforce Capability Strengthening in Africa is part of the with strong leadership, adequate funding with Multilateral Initiative on Malaria, which is coor- transparent and accountable methods for allo- dinated by the Special Programme for Research cating funds, and well equipped research institu- and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). Views also difer on the emphasis to be placed One framework for capacity-building, on, for example, building elite institutions, cre- which has the ingredients of many others, is ating international networks, boosting transla- represented in Fig. A framework to guide capacity-building, highlighting approaches and targets, the likelihood of sustainability, and the research focus Entity targeted Approach to capacity strengthening Graduate or Learning Institutional partnerships Centres of postgraduate training by doing between countries excellence Individuala +++ + ++ + Institution +++ ++ +++ +++ Network ++ ++ +++ ++ National level + ++ ++ +++ Supranational level ++ +++ ++ Financial investmentb ++ + +++ +++ Research focus Research skills Programme, policy, systems development Likelihood of + +++ sustainabilityc a Plus (+) signs indicate the entity is targeted + sometimes, ++ often, +++ frequently. Reproduced, by permission of the publisher, from Lansang & Dennis (52). For instance, of activities mattered more during the expan- graduate and postgraduate training are more sion stage. Funding for core activities and local likely to be efective when the host institutions management were vital during the consolidation are also strong (Table 4. From the outset, any programme to Te following sections look more closely at strengthen research capacity must defne, moni- three elements of capacity that are universally tor and evaluate success – an area in which important: building the research workforce, knowledge is still sparse (52, 53, 58–60). A simple tracking fnancial fows, and developing institu- geographical mapping of research activity can be tions and networks. One evalu- Creating and retaining a ation examined which indicators of research skilled research workforce capacity were most useful in four diferent set- tings: evidence-based health care in Ghana, The world health report 2006 − working together HIV voluntary counselling and testing services for health highlighted the critical role, and the in Kenya, poverty as a determinant of access to chronic shortage, of health workers, especially TB services in Malawi, and the promotion of in low-income countries (62). Here the vital community health in the Democratic Republic contribution made by health researchers as of the Congo (6). Te most expedient indicators part of the health workforce is underscored changed as programmes matured. Geographical distribution of research capacity in Africa Research output (Number of articles per city) 31–99 100–249 250–499 500–999 >1000 R&D, research and development. Note: Mapping of top 40 African cities by research output shows hotspots and coldspots of R&D activity and highlights inequi- ties in R&D productivity across the continent. Alongside the numerous exam- courses ofered by the International Union ples of “north–south” research collaboration run against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and a variety of training schemes for young research- Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Luxembourg ers – such as those ofered by TDR (www. Even where there are shortages of money int/tdr), the Training Programs in Epidemiology to do the research in Africa, there is an appe- and Public Health Interventions Network tite for career development through mentorship 104 Chapter 4 Building research systems for universal health coverage Box 4. Principles of research partnership Further details of these 11 principles can be found in Guidelines for research in partnership with developing countries prepared by the Swiss Commission for Research Partnership with Developing Countries (64). The 11 principles (with minor adaptation) are as follows: 1. Decide on research objectives together, including those who will use the results. Build mutual trust, stimulating honest and open research collaboration. Share information and develop networks for coordination. Create transparency in financial and other transactions. Monitor and evaluate collaboration, judging performance through regular internal and 1. Disseminate the results through joint publications and other means, with adequate communication to those who will finally use them. Apply the results as far as is possible, recognizing the obligation to ensure that results are used to benefit the target group. Share the benefits of research profits equitably including any profit, publications and patents. Increase research capacity at individual and institutional levels.