By O. Rakus. Virginia University of Lynchburg.
Antibiotics fight off bacteria by (a) inhibiting the bacteria’s ability to make protein called protein synthesis 30mg nimotop free shipping. What chemical mediators bring about the inflammatory reaction by vaso- dilatation discount nimotop 30mg on-line, relaxing smooth muscles, making capillaries permeable, and sensitizing nerve cells within the affected area to pain? The patient’s white blood count should be studied after the patient is given an antibiotic. Chicken soup is not a drug but it does contain a mucous-thinning amino acid called cysteine and is considered “grandma’s remedy” for the common cold. Actually, time is the best cure and most people feel better in 7 to 10 days with or without chicken soup. The common cold is one of a number of respiratory diseases that can infect our body. However, some respiratory dis- eases—such as emphysema—are debilitating and can slowly choke the life out of a person. In this chapter, we’ll explore the more common respiratory diseases and learn about the medications that are used to either destroy the disease-causing microorganism or to manage the symptoms of the disease. A Brief Look at Respiration Before learning about respiratory diseases and the medications used to treat them, let’s take a few moments to briefly review the anatomy and physiology of the res- piratory tract. The upper respiratory tract contains the nares, nasal cavity, pharynx, and larynx and the lower tract consists of the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, and alveolar- capillary membrane. During respiration, air is inhaled and makes its way through the upper respi- ratory tract and travels to the alveoli capillary membrane in the lower respiratory tract, which is the site of gas exchange. Oxygen from the air attaches to the hemoglobin of the blood while carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is expelled through the lower and upper respiratory tracts during expiration. Perfusion Perfusion is when blood from the pulmonary circulation is sufficient at the alveolar-capillary bed to conduct diffusion. In order for perfusion to occur, the alveolar pressure must be matched by adequate ventilation. The presence of mucosal edema, secretions and bronchospasm increase resistance to the airflow, which results in decreased ventilation. Diffusion Diffusion is the process where oxygen moves into the capillary bed and carbon dioxide leaves the capillary bed. Compliance is the ability of the lungs to be distended and is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure. These are the connective tis- sue that consists of collagen and elastin and surface tension in the alveoli, which is controlled by surfactant. Surfactant is a substance that lowers surface tension in the alveoli, thereby preventing interstitial fluid from entering the alveoli. That is, the lungs become stiff requiring more-than-normal pressure to expand the lungs. This is typically caused by an increase in connective tissue or an increase in surface tension in the alveoli. Throughout the body chemoreceptors sense the concentration of oxygen, car- bon, and carbon dioxide and then send a message to the central chemoreceptors located in the medulla near the respiratory center of the brain and through cere- brospinal fluid to respond to changes. When an increase in carbon dioxide is detected and there is an increase in hydrogen ions, the message goes out to increase ventilation. Once the oxygen pressure falls below <60 mmHg, the peripheral chemoreceptors send a message to the respiratory center in the medulla to increase ventilation. The tracheobronchial tube is a fibrous spiral of smooth muscles that become more closely spaced as they near the terminal bronchioles. The size of the air- way can be increased or decreased by relaxing or contracting the bronchial smooth muscle. This is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system—par- ticularly the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve releases acetylcholine when it is stimulated, which causes the tracheobronchial tube to contract. The opposite effect is created when the sympathetic nervous system releases epi- nephrine that stimulates the beta2 receptor in the bronchial smooth muscle. In a healthy patient the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems counter- balance each other to maintain homeostasis. Upper Respiratory Tract Disorders Respiratory disorders are divided into two groups: upper respiratory tract disorders and lower respiratory tract disorders. These include the common cold, acute rhinitis (not the same as allergic rhinitis), sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, and acute laryngitis. The rhinovirus is frequently accompanied by acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and increased nasal secretions. The rhinovirus is seasonable: 50% of the infections occur in the winter and 25% dur- ing the summer.
Similar programmes have been undertaken in Mozambique cheap nimotop 30mg free shipping, Zambia buy nimotop 30 mg on line, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Malawi. Primarily a disease of the rural poor in Africa, Plas- modium falciparum malaria causes more deaths than any other infectious agent in young African children and is responsible for almost 40% of these deaths. The efficacy of such remedies has been demonstrated by the successful development of modern antimalarials from traditionally used Cinchona and Artemisia spp. Twenty years later, Africa’s fragile oral knowledge systems are threatened by war, famine, political instability and urbanisation (with concomitant loss of the ‘ecosystem generation’). Unsustainable harvesting practices, delib- erate habitat destruction and climate change threaten the survival of the plant species on which Africa’s traditional healers depend. The greatest threat to traditional medical practice, however, is the burgeoning global population, whose growth and consumption of natural resources places plant diversity at risk in most parts of the world. The quantity of wild plant material exported from Africa and destined for the international pharma- ceutical trade is enormous, but pales into insignificance compared with that required by the trade in crude drugs used in traditional medical practice, within individual states or across regional borders. This has resulted in a disregard for traditional conservation practices and ‘an opportunistic scramble for the last bag of bark, bulbs or roots’. High rates of unemployment and low levels of formal education have also given rise to an increasing number of medicinal plant vendors, plying their trade in the marketplace (Figure 5. The period 2001–10 has been declared the Decade of African Traditional Medicine and an Africa Health Strategy (2007–15) has been formulated, focusing on the strengthening of health systems for equity and development in Africa. Conclusion There is no doubt that Africa’s rich botanical biodiversity and well-estab- lished traditional medical systems can be harnessed for the provision of better healthcare throughout the continent. The neces- sary expertise and infrastructure do not exceed the capabilities of the average African university School of Pharmacy. Toen wy in Oktober omtrent den Coperbergh quamen, weird door alle man ‘tselvs op d’omliggende bergen (tot voorraad vant geheele jaar) ingesamelt ‘t welck zy gelijk d’Indianers den betel of areck gebruijcken, synde seer vroolijk van humeur, meest alle avonden in haer ‘tsamenkomst. The Traditional Medical Practitioner in Zimbabwe: His principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. Manchester: Manchester University Press in association with the International African Institute, 1986: 50–86. Riding the wave: South Africa’s contri- bution to ethnopharmacological research over the last 25 years. Policy and public health perspectives on tradi- tional, complementary and alternative medicine: an overview. In: Bodeker, G, Burford G (eds), Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Policy and public health perspectives. Manchester: Manchester University Press in association with the International African Institute, 1986. The professionalisation of indigenous medicine: a comparative study of Ghana and Zambia. Manchester: Manchester University Press in association with the International African Institute, 1986: 117–135. Manchester: Manchester University Press in association with the International African Institute, 1986: 151–62. Report of the Inter-Regional Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights in the Context of Traditional Medicine. Proceedings of an International Workshop on Traditional Knowledge, Panama City, 21–23 September 2005. A review of the taxonomy, ethnobotany, chemistry and pharmacology of Sutherlandia frutescens (Fabaceae). Galanthamine: a randomised double-blind, dose comparison in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Antidiabetic screening and scoring of 11 plants traditionally used in South Africa. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa. The distribution of mesembrine alkaloids in selected taxa of the Mesembryanthemaceae and their modification in the Sceletium derived ‘kougoed’. Antimycobacterial activity of 5 plant species used as traditional medicines in the Western Cape Province (South Africa). Uses and abuses of in vitro testing in ethnopharmacology: visualizing an elephant. A pharmacognostical study of 26 South African plant species used as traditional medicines. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over- exploited medicinal tree? Acute toxicity associated with the use of South African traditional medicinal herbs. Clinical and analytical aspects of pyrrolizidine poisoning caused by South African traditional medicines.
A new produced and will be hung at various locations on interactive session on the caritas processes has been our unit purchase 30 mg nimotop visa. The added that asks participants to reﬂect on how these largest purchase 30 mg nimotop with mastercard, posted conspicuously at our threshold, processes are already evident in their praxis and to identiﬁes our unit as the home of the Attending explore ways they can deepen caring praxis both in- Caring Team. In ad- Giving ourselves a name and making our caring dition to changes in phase classes, informal “clock intentions visible contribute to establishing an hours” are offered monthly. Clock hours are de- identity, yet may be perceived as peripheral activi- signed to respond to the immediate needs of the unit and encompass a diverse range of topics, from conﬂict resolution, debrieﬁng after speciﬁc events, 3 Artwork created by and generously donated by artist Cynthia and professional development, to health treatment Telsey. Offered on the unit at varying hours Placing Caring Theory at the core of our praxis to accommodate all work shifts, clock hours pro- supports practicing caring-healing arts to promote vide a way for staff members to fulﬁll continuing wholeness, comfort, harmony, and inner healing. Building practice on awareness choose their attitude, work environments caring relationships has led to an increase in both improve for all. Previously, care conferences were called as caring, they become opportunities for authentic a way to disseminate information to families when human-to-human connectedness through I-Thou complicated issues arose or when communication relationships. Now, these conferences are offered proac- nurses, and volunteers—complete with marching tively as a way to coordinate team efforts and to music, hats, streamers, ﬂags, and noise makers— ensure we are working toward the families’ goals. This ﬂamboyant coordinate continuity of care, share insight into the display lasts less than ﬁve minutes but invigorates unique personality and preferences of the child, co- participants and bystanders alike. In addition to ordinate team effort, meet families, provide them being vital for children and especially appropriate tours of our unit, and collaborate with families. When our parade therapeutic touch, guided imagery, relaxation, visu- marches, visitors, rounding doctors, all present on alization, aromatherapy, and massage. Patients are invited to bring their pillows and fa- Caring Theory guides us and manifests in innu- vorite stuffed animal or doll and come dressed in merable ways. Our interview process has meals, staying late to care for patients and families, transformed from an interrogative threestep proce- and refusing to give off-going report until their on- dure into more of a sharing dialogue. We are adopting another intentionality towards caring and healing meeting style that expresses caring values. Narrative and exploration: Toward a poetics other health-care teams, and promoting staff in of knowledge in nursing. The Attending Nurse Caring “let the Ideal go if you are not trying to in- Model®: Integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring- corporate it in your daily life” (Vivinus & healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice. A old roles are reevaluated in light of cocreating new pedagogy for nursing (reprinted 2000). They shall not hurt: new forms of communication pattern and Human suffering and human caring. Instruments for assessing and measuring caring Journal of Clinical Nursing, 12, 360–365. A frog, a rock, a ritual: An eco-caring cosmol- ethics of cure: Synthesis in chronicity. Journal of Alternative Therapies, 9(3), nursing models: Education, research, practice, & administration A65–79. For complete publication citations of Watson and related publications and clinical-educational initiatives and contact informa- tion on Watson’s caring human theory, please go to www. Reconnecting with spirit: Caring and healing To obtain: e-mail University of Colorado Health Sciences our living and dying. Leininger Introducing the Theorist Introducing the Theory The Sunrise Enabler: A Conceptual Guide to Knowledge Discovery Current Status of the Theory References Introducing the Theorist Colorado. Scholastic College in Atchison, Kansas, and her Madeleine Leininger is the founder and leader of master’s degree was earned at the Catholic the ﬁeld of transcultural nursing, focusing on com- University of America in Washington, D. She parative human care theory and research, and she is completed her PhD in social and cultural anthro- founder of the worldwide Transcultural Nursing pology at the University of Washington. Leininger’s initial nursing education Leininger was dean and professor of nursing at the was at St. Her persistent lead- of master degree programs in nursing at American ership has made transcultural nursing and human and overseas institutions. Leininger is a fellow care central to nursing and respected as formal and distinguished living legend of the American areas of study and practice. She is professor emeritus of “Margaret Mead of the health ﬁeld” and the “New the College of Nursing at Wayne State University Nightingale” by colleagues and students. Some of her well- known books include Basic Psychiatric Concepts in One of the most signiﬁcant and unique contribu- Nursing (Leininger & Hoﬂing, 1960); Caring: An tions of Dr. Leininger was the development of her Essential Human Need (1981); Care: The Essence of Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory. Nursing and Health (1984); Care: Discovery and She introduced this theory in the early 1960s to Uses in Clinical and Community Nursing (1988); provide culturally congruent and competent care Care: Ethical and Moral Dimensions of Care (Leininger, 1991a, 1995). She believed that tran- (1990d); and Culture Care Diversity and Universal- scultural nursing care could provide meaningful ity: A Theory of Nursing (1991). Nursing and Anthropology: Two Worlds to cultural nursing concepts, principles, theories, and Blend (1970) was the ﬁrst book to bring together research-based knowledge to guide, challenge, and nursing and anthropology.