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Z. Dudley. Stevens-Henager College.
Single case studies which claim to demonstrate "real" age regression have been reported by a variety of investigators: Spiegel purchase 200MDI beconase aq with amex, Shor and Fishman (69) generic 200MDI beconase aq mastercard, Schneck (66), Mercer and Gibson (47), LeCron (41), Bergman, Graham, and Leavitt (8), and Kline (36). Despite these studies, which are based mostly on single cases, there is little evidence for the validity of hypnotic age regression. Young (85) in a study using a number of subjects has demonstrated that their performance on intelligence tests was not appropriate to their suggested age. Unhypnotized control subjects were more suc- -192- cessful in simulating their age than were subjects in deep hypnosis. There was no correlation between the apparent depth of hypnosis and the extent of regression. Orne (51) conducted a study of hypnotic age regression in ten subjects employing the Rorschach test and drawing samples, and was able to demonstrate that, while some regressive elements appeared, it was clear that nonregressive elements were also present. Furthermore, the changes toward regression did not show any consistency from subject to subject. The drawing samples in age regression were evaluated by Karen Machover who characterized them as "sophisticated oversimplification. For one subject his drawings at age six were available, but there was not even a superficial resemblance. To summarize, the literature on hypnotic age regression fails to demonstrate that the phenomenon is anything more than an extremely convincing form of role-playing, as suggested by Sarbin (61), Young (85), and Orne (51). There is little evidence in any of these studies to indicate that recall for nonernotional material is significantly improved. It is important for our purposes to distinguish between emotionally neutral material and emotionally charged events, which are subject to active forgetting or repression. There is abundant evidence that emotionally laden material that is not normally accessible can be recovered by hypnosis. Probably it is this phenomenon which has led to the erroneous assumption that all types of material may be recalled in this fashion. Two specific studies deal with memory in hypnosis: Stalnaker and Riddle (70) asked subjects in hypnosis to recall the poem "The Village Blacksmith. Much of the apparent improvement was due to appropriate confabulation of poetic material in the manner of Longfellow. The significant point is that subjects in hypnotic -193- trance show a marked tendency to confabulate with apparent verisimilitude. White, Fox, and Harris (82) demonstrated that hypnosis does not improve memory for recently learned material, but appears to improve memory for meaningful material, such as poetry, slightly. The Accuracy of Information Obtained in Hypnosis Considerably less material is available about the veracity of the material furnished by a subject in hypnosis. As the preceding discussion indicates, subjects in deep hypnosis tend to confabulate in the direction of what they perceive to be expected of them. We should like to examine the extent to which subjects in hypnosis can purposely misrepresent material, although it has been suggested to them that they cannot do this. As we have already indicated, Young (84) has shown that subjects can resist specific suggestions if they have decided in advance that they will do so. Beigel (6, 7) reports three cases of hypnosis used in an effort to ascertain the facts in marriage counseling situations. In a personal communication, he maintains that people in hypnosis may lie, refuse to answer, or wake up when asked direct questions on sensitive matters. However, he claims to have successfully elicited information which subjects were reluctant to reveal in the waking state by means of a hypnotic reliving of the situation. However, this approach utilizes a form of age regression, and is, as such, subject to the criticisms already made with regard to this technique. It is, perhaps, not too far fetched to assume that psychotherapy patients "want," at some level, to reveal information to their therapist. In reviewing the existing literature we have found only one author who deals with prevarication under hypnosis (Beigel). However, our own clinical work has amply convinced us that subjects are -194- fully capable of deliberately lying when motivated to do so. Although this report deals specifically with hypnosis, it may, at this juncture, be useful to consider also the question of prevarication under the influeuce of drugs commonly used in narcosynthesis. Its relevance is confirmed by the findings of Grinker and Spiegel (28) and others who, in the treatment of traumatic neurosis by narcosynthesis, obtainod results which closely paralleled those observed by hypnotic treatment of these neuroses (17). Individual differences in response to treatment are found both in narcosynthesis and hypnosis, whereas treatment techniques show marked similarities. Friedlander (24), Schilder (63), and others have described trance-induction techniques utilizing sleep-inducing drugs. With these similarities in manner we feel that it is appropriate to mention here some of the work done on the question of prevarication under the influence of these drugs, which as treated in more detail in Chapter 3. In a study of malingering soldiers Ludwig (42) reports that they remained negativistic and uncommunicative while under drugs. Nevertheless, narcoanalysis, when correctly used, may enable the psychiatrist to probe more deeply and quickly into the psychological characteristics of the subject. Thus the bare results of an interview under the influence of drugs should not, standing alone, be considered a valid and reliable indicator of the facts.
The style as comparison of the prepared product generic 200MDI beconase aq mastercard, provided for in paragraph (a)(2) of this with the blended color produced by section shall be included as part of the spinning a combination of the fol- name or in close proximity to the name lowing concentric Munsell color discs of the food trusted beconase aq 200MDI. Each of the in- lent of such discs: gredients used in the food shall be de- Disc 1—Red (5R 2. I (4–1–10 Edition) Disc 3—Black (N1) (glossy finish) (c) Salt means sodium chloride, deter- Disc 4—Grey (N4) (mat finish) mined as chloride and calculated as Such comparison is to be made in full percent sodium chloride, by the meth- diffused daylight or under a diffused od prescribed in "Official Methods of light source of approximately 2691 lux Analysis of the Association of Official (250 footcandles) and having a spectral Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. Elec- shall be deemed in compliance for the tronic color meters may be used as an following factors, to be determined by alternate means of determining the the sampling and acceptance procedure color of tomato juice. Such meters as provided in paragraph (e) of this sec- shall be calibrated to indicate that the tion, namely: color of the product is as red or more (1) Quality. The quality of a lot shall red than that produced by spinning the be considered acceptable when the Munsell color discs in the combination number of defectives does not exceed as set out above. A lot shall be od prescribed in "Official Methods of deemed to be in compliance for fill of Analysis of the Association of Official container when the number of Analytical Chemists," 13th Ed. A collection of crose Solutions at 20°," which is incor- primary containers or units of the porated by reference. The total number 202–741–6030, or go to: http:// of sample units drawn for examination www. If no salt has been tion of the contents of a container, or added, the sucrose value obtained from a composite mixture of product from the referenced tables shall be consid- small containers that is sufficient for ered the percent of tomato soluble sol- the examination or testing as a single ids. For fill of container, the sample tionally or through the application of unit shall be the entire contents of the the acidified break, determine the per- container. Any sample unit shall specified in paragraph (c) of this sec- be regarded as defective when the sam- tion. Subtract the percentage so found ple unit does not meet the criteria set from the percentage of tomato soluble forth in the standards. The max- fractive index tables) and multiply the imum number of defective sample units difference by 1. The resultant value permitted in the sample in order to is considered the percent of "tomato consider the lot as meeting the speci- soluble solids. Such will be accepted approximately 95 per- juice may be homogenized, may be sea- cent of the time. Tomato the area of either Disc 3 or Disc 4; or 91⁄2 percent of the area of Disc 3 and 91⁄2 juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained from the percent of the area of Disc 4, whichever unfermented liquid extracted from ma- most nearly matches the appearance of ture tomatoes of the red or reddish va- the tomato juice. In the extraction of such combination, in addition to three de- liquid, heat may be applied by any fects for seeds or pieces of seeds, de- method which does not add water fined as follows, per 500 milliliters (16. Such juice is strained free fluid ounces): from peel, seeds, and other coarse or (a) Pieces of peel 3. I (4–1–10 Edition) (b) Blemishes such as dark brown or of this chapter, in the manner and form black particles (specks) greater than therein prescribed. A collection of primary con- ment of substandard quality specified tainers or units of the same size, type in §130. The number of primary substandard quality when the quality containers or units (pounds when in of the tomato juice falls below the bulk) in the lot. The total number of label may bear the alternative state- sample units drawn for examination ment, "Below Standard in Quality from a lot. A container, a por- the words specified after the cor- tion of the contents of a container, or responding paragraph (s) under para- a composite mixture of product from graph (b)(1) of this section which such small containers that is sufficient for tomato juice fails to meet, as follows: the examination or testing as a single (i) "Poor color". The maximum of fill of container for tomato juice, as number of defective sample units per- mitted in the sample in order to con- determined by the general method for sider the lot as meeting the specified fill of container prescribed in §130. The following accept- of this chapter, is not less than 90 per- ance numbers shall apply: cent of the total capacity, except when the food is frozen. Size container Lot size (primary container) (2) Determine compliance as specified n1 c2 in §156. Where the peas Vegetables are of sweet green wrinkled varieties, the name may include the designation §158. The label shall Frozen peas is the food in "package" contain the words "frozen" or "quick form as that term is defined in §1. The name of the food shall in- this chapter, prepared from the suc- clude a declaration of any flavoring culent seed of the pea plant of the spe- that characterizes the product as speci- cies Pisum sativum L. It is blanched, laration of any condiment such as drained, and preserved by freezing in spices and mint leaves that character- such a way that the range of tempera- izes the product, e. The freezing process such statement shall indicate either shall not be regarded as complete until the size designation as specified in the product temperature has reached paragraph (a)(2) of this section or the ¥18 °C (0 °F) or lower at the thermal applicable sieve size. Each of the in- (v) Monosodium glutamate and other gredients used in the food shall be de- glutamic acid salts. If size graded, applicable sections of parts 101 and 130 frozen peas shall contain not less than of this chapter. I (4–1–10 Edition) (i) Not more than 4 percent by weight and (b)(1)(viii) of this section, shall be blond peas, i. For the determination of ible peas; alcohol-insoluble solids as specified in (ii) Not more than 10 percent by paragraph (b)(3) of this section, the weight blemished peas, i.
Secondary prevention of osteoporotic fracture generic 200MDI beconase aq otc, including patients on long- term corticosteroids In severe osteoporosis buy beconase aq 200MDI cheap, i. Avoid high calcium diet when immobile as hypercalcaemia may occur with immobilisation. Differentiate bone pain of Paget’s, especially at night, from arthritic pain in joints near deformed bone, e. Note: There are numerous causes of hyperprolactinaemia other than a prolactinoma, e. Radiotherapy may be required in selected patients A notification bracelet is needed. Hypogonadism Individualise dosage and need for replacement according to age, symptoms, etc. Acute management Post operatively: • Desmopressin, nasal spray, 10–20 mcg 12–24 hourly. Careful monitoring of electrolytes and exclusion of fluid overload while on therapy is essential to determine the appropriate dose. Clinical Always suspect in a patient with resistant hypertension or hypertension with hypokalaemia. Diagnosis Elevated serum aldosterone with a suppressed renin level or elevated aldosterone/renin ratio. Because of limited specificity, a positive screening test result should be followed by a confirmatory test. Other common causes are toxic single or multinodular goitre and sub-acute thyroiditis. Radioactive iodine In the setting of Graves’ disease radioactive iodine may be administered for failed medical therapy and may be indicated for patients with coexistent heart disease. It is contraindicated during pregnancy and lactation and in active thyroid associated ophthalmopathy, unless corticosteroid cover is given. Surgery Consider if the thyroid is very large or if there is failure of antithyroid drug therapy. Monitoring Patients with Graves’ disease who are treated with antithyroid drugs should be monitored every 6–8 weeks using a serum T4. Once in remission, patients may be monitored less frequently to determine signs and symptoms of recrudescence of thyrotoxicosis. Because there is a risk of neutropenia or agranulocytosis with carbimazole, therapy should be temporarily stopped and a white cell count (with differential) must be done in patients presenting with an infection or sore throat. Medical therapy is indicated initially for patients with underlying heart disease to achieve euthyroidism before radio-active iodine. Many anatomical sites can be involved and only the four most common will be discussed. It is essential to obtain specimens for culture and sensitivity testing in all cases before starting antibiotics, as multi-drug resistant organisms are common causes of hospital-acquired infections. Infections acquired in the intensive care unit are much more likely to be due to multi-drug resistant organisms. Close liaison with regional microbiologists and regular review of hospital antibiotic policy are essential. In some cases of infection with coagulase negative staphylococci the infection will resolve on removal of the catheter. Note: Candida isolated from blood culture should always be treated, even if the fever has settled after line removal. Switch to oral therapy according to antibiotic susceptibility after resolution of fever. Ventilator associated pneumonia Choice will depend on local susceptibility patterns. Risk Type of exposure Action Category 1 » touching or None if reliable history feeding animal » licking intact skin 2 » nibbling Wound treatment. Vaccine is ideally given as soon as possible after exposure, but should still be given if patient presents some time after the exposure. If vaccine administration is delayed > 48 hours, a double dose should be given initially. Immunoglobulin must be given as soon as possible after exposure, but may be administered up to 7 days after the first vaccine is given. Infection is usually acquired from unpasteurised milk products or handling raw meat. These include: » long sleeved disposable gown, » vinyl or rubber apron if the patient is bleeding, » two pairs of latex gloves, one below the gown and one over the gown, » disposable face mask preferably with a visor, » goggles if a mask without the visor is used, and » waterproof boots or 2 pairs of overshoes, one over the other. Exclude alternate diseases (see above) by means of appropriate laboratory testing, keeping safety precautions in mind.
Reducing costs of procurement would be especially helpful in the poorest countries buy discount beconase aq 200MDI line, which tend to spend a higher proportion of their health budget on drugs and where medicines are often expensive (Torstensson and Pugatch order 200MDI beconase aq with visa, 2012). In a study of 36 low- and middle-income countries, Cameron and colleagues found that public procurement agencies in the western Pacifc, Africa, and the former Soviet bloc pay an average of 34 to 44 percent above the international reference prices (Cameron et al. Donors may attempt to cover unmet demand for drugs, though donor procurement also has problems. Many European donors ask their recipients to assure quality of medicines procured with donated funds (Moore et al. Proper precaution in the medicines procurement process can prevent poor-quality products from infltrating the market. Good procurement involves separating the various steps of procurement process identifed in Table 4-2. Good procurement also puts a strong emphasis on controlling corruption and promoting transparency. Recommendation 4-2: Procurement agencies should develop a plan, within the next 3 to 5 years, to comply with the World Health Orga- nization’s Model Quality Assurance System for procurement agencies and work to remove any barriers to compliance. The model draws on the accumulated experience of these agencies’ procure- ment experts and combines advice on the procurement of medicines, vac- cines, diagnostic kits, and devices. The model focuses on four key activities: prequalifcation of pharmaceutical products and manufacturers and drug purchase, storage, and distribution. At its launch in 2006, the model had an aspirational element; it de- scribed standards that few if any of the international procurement agencies were able to maintain at that time. In the past 6 years, large procurement agencies have made great progress toward meeting the standards laid out in the model (van Zyl et al. The committee sees the model quality assurance system as a useful independent standard to assess procurement agencies. The system is a practical tool that can be used by national and international procurement agencies. Pharmaceutical procurement almost always means working with foreign suppliers; a practice that exceeds capacity of national regulators, who cannot hope to inspect foreign manufacturers as they would domestic ones. Good procurement also means that only organi- zations that follow the model system should import medicines. Small-scale importation and procurement by small actors threaten the medicines supply chain. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs 149 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs 150 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs 151 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. District hospitals and health posts in poor countries will not likely meet the model standards for premises, equipment, or staffng any time in the near future (Dickens, 2011). In the meantime, if full preselection of quality suppliers is not possible, interim solutions such as a two-envelope system can help reduce bias to- ward the cheapest frms. In this system, used by the Delhi hospital system, bidders submit their technical statement of work and their costs in sepa- rate, sealed envelopes (Chaudhury et al. Only if the quality controls are suffcient do they open the second envelope, containing the project budget. Ultimately, medicine procurement is complicated and requires consid- erable investment in staff and procedures. Cutting corners in procurement creates opportunities for substandard products to infltrate the supply chain. Therefore, smaller organizations such as district health offces should be free to choose the products and amounts they need from licensed, national wholesalers or importers, but they should not procure directly from manufacturers. The committee recognizes that licensing wholesalers and importers requires political will. It might take time to build momentum for this step, as discussed further in Chapter 5. Therefore, the committee recommends that national and international procurement agencies take 3 to 5 years to develop and implement their compliance plans. These agencies can develop their quality- assurance system within the next 5 years. The regulatory authority can then license national procurement agencies to buy medicines directly from manu- facturers. Instead, these organizations will be able to order their medicines from licensed procurement agencies, thereby making more effcient use of their staff and budgets and avoiding the dangers of primary procurement. Use of prescreening and prequalifcation is recommended for procurement agencies with limited capabilities.