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He has served on numerous national and international government advisory panels on viral hepatitis and is chair of the Associa- tion of Schools of Public Health quality 25 mg cozaar. He also served on the National Acad- emies Committee on the Middle East Regional Infectious Disease Research Program and Committee on the Assessment of Future Scientifc Needs for Variola Virus and on the Public Health and Biotechnology Review Panel cheap cozaar 25mg on line. Alter’s research interest is in viral hepatitis and the safety 0 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. He was a major contributor in the fght to reduce the incidence of transfusion-induced viral hepatitis, and he collaborated in the discovery of hepatitis C and described its natural history. He was the corecipient of the 2000 Clinical Lasker Award and was made a master of the American College of Physicians. Brandeau, PhD, is a professor in the Department of Manage- ment Science and Engineering of Stanford University. She also holds a cour- tesy appointment in the Department of Medicine of the same institution. Brandeau is an operations researcher and policy analyst with extensive background in the development of applied mathematical and economic models. She received her PhD in engineering and economic systems from Stanford University. He coordinates the statewide viral hepatitis program, including disease surveillance; medical-management services; counseling and testing programs; adult vaccination programs; edu- cational campaigns for providers, patients, and communities; and evalu- ation of projects. Evans, ScD, is an assistant professor in the Department of Epide- miology and Biostatistics of the Drexel University School of Public Health. Her research interests include the epidemiology and natural history of the hepatitis B virus and other chronic viral infections. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. Her broad research interest is in the etiology and prevention of hepatitis C and other bloodborne viral infections in drug users and other high-risk populations; her work has also examined drug users’ access to screening and health care. Hagan has served on several national government ad- visory groups, including the steering committee for the National Institutes of Health hepatitis C vaccine trial. Hullett was the executive director of Family HealthCare of Alabama, which is headquartered in Eutaw, Alabama, and provided ser- vices to patients of west central Alabama. She has an interest in rural health care, including health-care planning and delivery to the underserved, un- derinsured, and poor; and she has extensive experience in research, clinical trials, community outreach, and teaching of direct care delivery. She has received many awards and honors, including the Rural Practitioner of the Year Award in 1988 from the National Rural Health Association, the Clinical Recogni- tion Award for Education and Training from the National Association of Community Health Centers in 1993, the Public Health Hero Award for Year 2000 from the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, the National Medical Fellowship in 2001, Lifetime Achievement of Women in Health Care from Rutgers University in 2002, and the Local Legends Award from the American Medical Women’s Association in Febru- ary 2004. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. She is also an assistant professor in the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases of the University of Minnesota. Maroushek works with immigrant pediatric patients and has published extensively on medical evaluation and screening of immigrant children for infectious diseases. He was previously employed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Alaska. McMahon has worked to reduce the rate of hepatitis B in the native Alaskan population, which went from one of the highest in the world to one of the lowest. He provides clinical care for patients who have viral hepatitis and liver disease and conducts research in population-epidemiol- ogy hepatitis and liver disease. He has served as a consultant on viral hepa- titis issues to the World Health Organization and other international and national organizations. McMahon received the Assistant Secretary for Health Award for Exceptional Achievement in 1985; the Alvan R. Feinstein Memorial Award from the American College of Physicians in 2003 for the Program to Control Hepatitis B in Alaska Natives; and the 2009 Scientist of the Year from the Hepatitis B Foundation for notable contributions in clinical epidemiology regarding research on and control of hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C in Alaska natives. Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C http://www. His research interests and health-care reform initiatives include patient-centered primary care and medical homes, care management and coordination, total health management, workplace health promotion, risk- reduction program measurement, value-based health-care purchasing, and global occupational and health services delivery. Thompson Distinguished Fellow Award from Yale University and the Distinguished Alumnus Award for Professional Achievement from the University of Iowa. His team has received numerous national and interna- tional awards in health care, health promotion, and occupational health and safety. He is also the director of the Asian Liver Center and director of the Multidisciplinary Liver Cancer Program at the same institution. He has published numerous studies on solid-organ transplanta- tion and gastric and liver cancers. So is well known for his work on hepatitis B and liver-cancer education and prevention programs.

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Women have been barred from employment that was con- sidered harmful to a foetus trusted cozaar 50mg, even if they were not pregnant discount 50 mg cozaar amex. In 1978, American Cyanamid banned all women of childbear- ing age (defined as 16 to 50) from their plant in West Virginia, unless they could prove that they had been sterilised. Free sterilisation was offered and five women accepted it rather 48 than being dismissed. A Nevada woman who drank some beer the day 49 before she went into labour lost custody of her child. The New England Journal of Medicine reported 21 such cases in women who were, as a rule, single, poor, and coloured; Acceptance of forced caesarean sections, hospital deten- tions, and intra-uterine transfusions may trigger demands for court-ordered pre-natal screening, foetal surgery, and restrictions on the diet, work, athletic activity and sexual 50 activity of pregnant women. The woman did not consent, so she was brought to court, where her doctor claimed that there was a 99 per cent probability that the child would die and a 50 per cent probability that the mother would die, if a caesarian section was not performed. She won an appeal to the Georgia Supreme Court and, shortly after- wards, delivered a healthy baby without surgical inter- 52 vention. While some women may be forced to keep their pregnancy against their will others may be prevented from becoming pregnant. It usually takes some 15-20 years before American fashions in public health are adopted in Britain. Yet a High Court in London, in October 1992, ordered an emergency caesarean section on a 30-year-old woman, who refused the operation on religious grounds. In 1992, in Erlangen, Germany, an 18-year-old woman was killed in a car accident and since she was carrying a four-month-old 160 Coercive medicine foetus it was decided to keep the brain-dead woman on a life-support machine until the baby could be delivered. Police powers may even extend to forcing women to undergo a gynaecological examination if there is a suspicion that they have had an illegal abortion abroad. According to a study carried out in 1991 by the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Law in Freiburg, there were about ten such cases a year, especially in women returning to Ger- 58 many from the Netherlands. As early as 1963, Erwin Goffman noted that: Only one completely unblushing male in America is a young, married, white, urban, northern, heterosexual Protestant father of college education, fully employed, of good complexion, weight and height and a recent record 60 of sports. Medical screening of healthy humans is the latest addition to collecting information on private citizens. It is the apparent benevolence of the purposes of health screening - to prevent disease and to prolong life - which makes it particularly dangerous, as its more sinister aspects go unnoticed. Epidemiologists, physicians, and other policy makers often treat an estimate of the likelihood of something happening 62 to an individual as an important fact about him. This new statistical or actuarial concept of risk only became part of health promotion rhetoric in the 1970s. This develop- 162 Coercive medicine ment is in line with the neopuritanical tendency towards nor- malisation. Yet, clearly, it is not homosexuality which causes the disease, and even if all homosexuals were exterminated, it would not eradicate the disease. In general, the study of risk factors and their detection in individuals does not bring us nearer to an understanding of causal mechanisms. More often than not, risk factors obscure rather than illuminate the path towards a proper understand- ing of cause. Hagen Kuhn pointed out that prevention based on risk-factor epidemiology is governed by the kind of logic by which room temperature may be lowered by placing the 65 room thermometer into a bucket of ice. The information which accrues from risk-factor screening is hardly ever of any benefit to the person screened, but is of advantage to screeners. In communist countries, regular health checks were often made compulsory, and this is now spreading to Western democracies. Mis- use of screening at the workplace and by insurance companies is discussed below. Allegrante and Sloan provided a psychological explanation for modern victim blaming: We tend to perceive the world as a just place in which people get what they deserve and deserve what they get. This applies not only to those people who are the benefici- aries of positive events, but also to those who are vic- timized by misfortune. Refusal to treat stigmatised persons, however, is now widely supported by the medical profession. In the Erewhonian world illnesses were considered at the same time criminal and immoral. There was a gradation of guilt and of punishment, depending on the seriousness of the disease. While becoming blind or deaf at the age of 65 was dealt with by summary fine, serious disease in a younger person earned a stiff prison sentence. On the other hand, arsonists or cheque forgers were sent to hospital and treated at public expense.

The first two years contain a series of taught 10 and 20 credit modules and are followed by a dissertation for completion at master’s level cheap 25mg cozaar amex. The credit allocation is as follows: 60 points for successful completion of year 1 (6 x 10 credit modules or 4 x 10 credit modules and 1 x 20 credit module) cozaar 25mg visa, equivalent to a certificate; an additional 60 points for 6 more 10 credit modules to achieve Diploma level; and a further 60 points gained on completion of the dissertation, i. In later years, as student numbers increase, all modules will be available, but students will be asked to rank their elective choices in each block as first and second choice. We would hope in the majority of cases that students will be able to do their preferred elective choices. Year 1 Each 10 credit module will last for five weeks with one week at the end for self-study/ assignment writing. Year 2 Students will complete the following compulsory courses: 1 Clinical Skills Principles (examination, communication and Sept–Oct procedures) 2 Acute Medicine and Clinical Decision Making (10 credits) Oct–Dec 2. Some of the modules have a maximum student quota also – please speak to the course organisers for further details about this. Programme timetable A finalised timetable for each term will be published at the start of the term and sent to all enrolled students. The course material for the individual weeks will be made available on the first Monday of the week. Most of this material, including e-lectures and core reading, can be accessed at any time, so they are not included in the timetable. Any scheduled events (usually tutorials) requiring fixed time commitment will be shown on the timetable distributed at the start of each term. We do understand that due to time differences, not all students will be able to attend these tutorials, and they will be archived for future viewing. You are responsible for organising your time and making sure you meet assessment deadlines and any other requirements. Features include:  Case of the Week: we will present new cases every week and these will be explored further in the discussion boards. Content will be divided into modules, and each module lasts for five weeks, with a further week at the end for assessment. Students can explore these further in the literature, interactive resources and tutorials. Students will be encouraged to contribute to the discussion boards where they share their thinking with other students. During most weeks there will be interactive online tutorials (see below) in which students and tutors share information, discuss key issues, identify learning needs and gaps and benefit from the interaction of the group. Online tutorials (Wimba tutorial space) We will also be using the Wimba platform to provide a virtual tutorial environment where students can meet for live lectures/tutorials/group discussions. Wimba allows delivery of face-to-face teaching and encourages a sense of community in the students. Students are strongly encouraged to attend the live tutorial sessions, but they will be archived for future viewing for the benefit of any students unable to attend. There will be an introductory tutorial in Fresher’s Week so that everyone has the opportunity to familiarize themselves with the tutorial platform. We would be grateful if all students could always be present in the tutorial room five minutes before the tutorial is due to start. Online resources and OpenMed In addition to the core teaching material, we will be encouraging use of open- access resources that have been released (usually by other teaching or educational organisations) under creative commons licenses for general teaching use. We have collated these into different clinical specialties and graded them for level of user and quality; they can be accessed through the OpenMed website at openmed. For each specialty area we have grouped resources into a useful learning pathway or curriculum. Many of our tutors will be adding and rating resources in their specialty areas and will point you in the direction of any useful additional resources. Anyone interested in contributing to the website should contact Dr Eleri Williams. Library facilities and e-textbooks Library facilities will be provided electronically through the University of Edinburgh Library Online. Students will also have access to the physical library buildings if they do wish to access these in Edinburgh. The University library will allow access to most journals and online e-textbooks related to the course. Computer requirements Computer and broadband A computer and internet access (preferably broadband) are required to participate in the course. A webcam is very useful for full participation in tutorials but a microphone and headphones will allow ‘voice-only’ participation. Software / computer configurations We will ask you to download some free software and to run configurations to ensure your computer is set up to run some of the e-learning resources (e. You will be given full details of this prior to commencing the course—see below for further details: Flash player Check you have the latest Flash Player (Version 9 or above) How do I know what version of Flash Player I have? Two ways of doing this, either: a) Right-click any flash object in a web browser b) Click on Start> Control Panel >Add/Remove Programs.