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By L. Yespas. Charleston Southern. 2018.

Health psychology focuses on the indirect pathway between psychology and health which emphasizes the role that beliefs and behaviours play in health and illness gefitinib 30 mg on line. The contents of the first half of this book reflect this emphasis and illustrate how different sets of beliefs relate to behaviours and how both these factors are associated with illness generic gefitinib 30mg online. Chapter 2 examines changes in the causes of death over the twentieth century and why this shift suggests an increasing role for beliefs and behaviours order gefitinib 30mg visa. The chapter then assesses theories of health beliefs and the models that have been developed to describe beliefs and predict behaviour. Chapter 3 examines beliefs individuals have about illness and Chapter 4 examines health professionals’ health beliefs in the context of doctor– patient communication. Chapters 5– 9 examine health-related behaviours and illustrate many of the theories and constructs which have been applied to specific behaviours. Chapter 5 describes theories of addictive behaviours and the factors that predict smoking and alcohol con- sumption. Chapter 6 examines theories of eating behaviour drawing upon develop- mental models, cognitive theories and the role of weight concern. Chapter 9 examines screening as a health behaviour and assesses the psychological factors that relate to whether or not someone attends for a health check and the psychological consequences of screening programmes. Health psychology also focuses on the direct pathway between psychology and health and this is the focus for the second half of the book. Chapter 10 examines research on stress in terms of its definition and measurement and Chapter 11 assesses the links between stress and illness via changes in both physiology and behaviour and the role of moderating variables. Chapter 12 focuses on pain and evaluates the psycho- logical factors in exacerbating pain perception and explores how psychological interven- tions can be used to reduce pain and encourage pain acceptance. Chapter 13 specifically examines the interrelationships between beliefs, behaviour and health using the example of placebo effects. Chapter 16 explores the problems with measuring health status and the issues surrounding the measurement of quality of life. Finally, Chapter 17 examines some of the assumptions within health psychology that are described throughout the book. My thanks again go to my psychology and medical students and to my colleagues over the years for their comments and feedback. For this edition I am particularly grateful to Derek Johnston and Amanda Williams for pointing me in the right direction, to David Armstrong for conversation and cooking, to Cecilia Clementi for help with all the new references and for Harry and Ellie for being wonderful and for going to bed on time. Take advantage of the study tools offered to reinforce the material you have read in the text, and to develop your knowledge of Health Psychology in a fun and effective way. Study Skills Open University Press publishes guides to study, research and exam skills, to help under- graduate and postgraduate students through their university studies. Get a £2 discount off these titles by entering the promotional code app when ordering online at www. The chapter highlights differences between health psychology and the biomedical model and examines the kinds of questions asked by health psychologists. Then the possible future of health psychology in terms of both clinical health psychology and becoming a professional health psychologist is discussed. Finally, this chapter outlines the aims of the textbook and describes how the book is structured. This chapter covers: ➧ The background to health psychology ➧ What is the biomedical model? Darwin’s thesis, The Origin of Species, was published in 1856 and described the theory of evolution. This revolutionary theory identified a place for Man within Nature and suggested that we were part of nature, that we developed from nature and that we were biological beings. This was in accord with the biomedical model of medicine, which studied Man in the same way that other members of the natural world had been studied in earlier years. This model described human beings as having a biological identity in common with all other biological beings. The biomedical model of medicine can be understood in terms of its answers to the following questions: s What causes illness? According to the biomedical model of medicine, diseases either come from outside the body, invade the body and cause physical changes within the body, or originate as internal involuntary physical changes. Such diseases may be caused by several factors such as chemical imbalances, bacteria, viruses and genetic predisposition. Because illness is seen as arising from biological changes beyond their control, individuals are not seen as responsible for their illness. The biomedical model regards treatment in terms of vaccination, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, all of which aim to change the physical state of the body. Within the biomedical model, health and illness are seen as qualitatively different – you are either healthy or ill, there is no continuum between the two.

Of course order gefitinib 30 mg on line, it helps to take the malicious thought to Thought Court first buy discount gefitinib 30 mg on line, which you’ve done — right? Write down one of your most malicious thoughts from your Thought Tracker (see Worksheet 6-6) purchase 30 mg gefitinib with amex. Imagine that the friend has a problem very similar to your own and has similar thoughts about the problem. Imagine you’re talking with your friend about a better way to think about and deal with the problem. Look over that advice and try to rehabilitate your most malicious thought into a more balanced, summary replacement thought in Worksheet 6-14. My most malicious thought: __________________________________________________________________________________ Worksheet 6-13 My Getting Help from a Friend Worksheet 6-14 My Replacement Thought Traveling to the future The events that disrupt your life today rarely have the same meaning after a few days, weeks, or months. If you think back on these events after some time has passed, however, rarely can you muster up the same intensity of emotion. That’s because most upsetting events truly aren’t all that important if you look at them in the context of your entire life. Check out the following example of the Traveling to the Future technique in action. He’d like to sell the property, but he knows it’s worth far more if it can be zoned for commercial purposes first. In order to do that, Joel must present his case in front of the Zoning Commission. He expects some opposition and criticism from homeowners in the area, and he’s been putting this task off for months because of the intense anxiety it arouses in him. He fills out a Thought Tracker (see “From Arraignment to Conviction: Thought Court” ear- lier in this chapter) and identifies his most malicious thought: “I’ll make a fool out of myself. He rates the emotional upset and effect on his life that he feels right now, and then he re-rates the impact on his life at the conclusion of the exercise. Worksheet 6-15 Joel’s Traveling to the Future If I do indeed make a fool out of myself, I’ll probably feel pretty bad and the impact on my life will feel like 30 or even 40 on a 100-point scale. I suspect that images of the incident will go through my mind fairly often, but six months from now, I doubt I’ll think about the inci- dent much at all. So I guess the overall effect on my life will likely be about a 1 on a 100-point scale. After pondering what his malicious thought will seem like in the future, Joel feels ready to develop a more realistic replacement thought (see Worksheet 6-16). Chapter 6: Indicting and Rehabilitating Thoughts 91 Worksheet 6-16 Joel’s Replacement Thought Even if I should happen to make a fool out of myself, it’s hardly going to be a life-changing event. The Traveling to the Future technique won’t apply to all your thoughts and problems, but it works wonders with quite a few. In Joel’s case, he could have analyzed his malicious thought for obvious distortions such as labeling and enlarging. In other words, be sure to try out a variety of strate- gies for rehabilitating your thoughts in order to find the one that works best for you and for a particular thought or thoughts. Take one of your most malicious thoughts and use the Traveling to the Future strategy to devise an effective response to that thought. Write down one of your most malicious thoughts from your Thought Tracker (see Worksheet 6-6). In Worksheet 6-17, rate the overall amount of upset and impact you feel at the moment (on a scale of 1 to 100, with 100 representing the highest imaginable impact). In Worksheet 6-18, write down a balanced, summary replacement thought based on any new perspective you obtain with this strategy. People worry about things yet to happen to them, such as facing a plane crash, catching germs, encountering heights, and experiencing embarrassment. They predict that whatever they undertake will result in horror, misery, or unhappiness. In other words, people tend to overestimate the risks of negative outcomes, and they do so more often when they’re in emotional distress. When you predict negative outcomes, you have malicious thoughts that paralyze you from taking action. In order to develop replacement thoughts for your malicious ones, you first need to rethink your negative predictions. After you analyze your predictions, you’ll be able to rehabilitate your malicious thoughts. Melinda takes on Allison’s responsibilities in her absence and assumes the extra work without thinking about it. She predicts that she won’t be able to handle the job, and she can’t see herself as a boss. Her most malicious thoughts are, “I’m not cut out to handle supervising others — I’m a fol- lower, not a leader.

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Quantitative-qualitative friction ridge analysis: An intro- duction to basic and advanced ridgeology buy gefitinib 30 mg with visa. Israel National Police: International Symposium on Fingerprint Detection and Identifcation purchase 30mg gefitinib overnight delivery. Te boiling technique: A method for obtaining quality postmortem impressions from deteriorating friction ridge skin generic gefitinib 30 mg otc. Fingerprinting is probably the only other technique used with greater frequency, but as we know, the sof tissue of the extremities does not resist the ravages of time and environment like the enamel and dentin of human teeth. So, in terms of rapidity, degree of certainty, cost-efectiveness, and applicability to a wide range of intact, decomposing, or skeletonized remains, forensic odontology has been the identifcation method of choice. Miniscule amounts of biological evidence can be individualized and the results quantifed using statistics so staggering that the courts and the public have come to expect the same sort of return on all types of forensic analyses. With this new technology comes an increased risk to personal privacy that actually crosses generations, as well as the fear of genetic discrimination in employment and insurance sectors. Te nucleotide base adenine (A) always pairs with thymine (T), and guanine (G) always pairs with cytosine (C); the end result is a long molecule composed of two antiparallel strands in a twisted ladder shape that is called a double helix. Te impact of Astbury’s discovery on forensic science was the realization that we inherit the code to produce our characteristics but, strictly speaking, not the characteristics themselves. Tus, by uncovering the code that exists within a biological sample, we have a quantifable and unique basis for indi- vidualization. And by focusing on the fundamental code, we remove the subjectivity that arises from analyzing the characteristics, which are the end product of the code and may be signifcantly impacted by unpredictable environmental forces. We receive half of our genetic material from our mothers and half from our fathers, but because of the shufing around of genes (called indepen- dent assortment) prior to the creation of the egg and sperm, our parents con- tribute a diferent allotment of their genetic material to each ofspring. Te exception to the rule regarding a unique chromosomal constitution for every person is the occurrence of identical twins. Twenty-two pairs of chromo- somes are autosomes and the remaining pair consists of two sex-determining chromosomes, which are grouped as X,X (female) or X,Y (male). Forensic scientists may choose to analyze autosomes for individualization and sex chromosomes for gender determination. Specifc analysis of the Y chromosome is an increasingly common practice in sexual assault cases. Furthermore, this genome is inherited from the mother only, and thus is not unique to the individual. Te evidence will be unpackaged in a biosafety hood, inventoried, reconciled with the accompanying chain-of-custody documents, and assigned a laboratory track- ing number. Tis tracking number is usually an alphanumeric composition that may include a case designator, as well as a sample or specimen designator. Regardless of how the tracking number is derived, it will be the unique iden- tifer used for that sample throughout laboratory processing and reporting. Afer accessioning, the evidence is documented photographically and repack- aged with the submitter’s identifying information and the laboratory tracking number. Evidence that does not undergo immediate analysis is sealed with the date and analyst’s initials and placed in secure cold storage at –20°C. Tis particular approach is amenable to automation and can provide increased efciency when large numbers of samples require high-throughput robotic processing9–13 (Figure 7. A subsequent chemiluminescent (light-producing) reaction is used to expose x-ray flm. During the second or annealing step the temperature is decreased, usually in the range of 55 to 72°C. In the third step, the temperature is elevated only slightly to 72 to 75°C and extension begins. Tis step-wise replication of the template strand starts at one primer and continues nucleotide by nucleotide until the ending primer is reached. Tis gel may be poured into an external slab or run inside a single or multiple capillaries (an array). Te older slab gel confguration risked bleed-over from one injection lane to the next and took much longer for a technician to prepare. Te newer capillary arrays are cleaner and more efcient but also more expensive (Figure 7. At that point a laser detects the fuorescent signal and correlates it to a standard (allelic ladder) of known fragment sizes. Pairs of peaks usually indicate heterozygosity at that location (locus) on the molecule, whereas a single peak generally indi- cates the individual is homozygous or has only one variant at that locus. Tese nucleotides are unique in that they are missing the 3′-hydroxyl group that would normally permit the extension process to continue. Instead, the incorporation of this dideoxynucleotide terminates the extension process. Although normal deoxynucleotides are also present, only the dideoxy terminators are fuorescently tagged with one of four dye colors for adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

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This compound has been found to reduce the risk of certain cancers cheap 30mg gefitinib with mastercard, reduce the size of existing tumours buy gefitinib 30mg with amex, and inhibit tumour growth order gefitinib 30 mg on-line. It also sup- ports heart function by lowering blood pressure and reducing the risk of fatal heart attacks. Most studies evaluating the health benefits of green tea in- volved drinking 750–2,500 mL daily. Black tea, white tea, Oolong tea, and other teas derived from the plant Camellia sinesis may offer similar health benefits but are not as widely researched. Studies have found that 3 g of beta-glucan daily can reduce total cholesterol by an average of 5 percent. This 36 | Chapter 3 amount can be found in approximately 60 g of oatmeal or 40 g of oat bran. Powerful sulphur compounds in onions are responsible for their pungent odour and for many of their health benefits. Onions provide a concentrated source of the flavonoid quercitin, which helps reduce inflammation and may halt the growth of cancer. Cooking meats with onions may help reduce the amount of carcinogens produced when meat is cooked at high heat. In general, the more pungent an onion, the more active compounds and health benefits it has. Research suggests that consuming 25 g of soy protein daily can provide a significant cholesterol-lowering effect. Aside from soybeans and tofu, you can get the benefits of soy protein by eating soy nuts, soy milk, soy yogurt, and bars and shakes con- taining soy protein. Lycopene is also present in tomato sauce, tomato paste, and ketchup, which contain a higher amount of lycopene than fresh toma- toes. To obtain 10 mg of lycopene, you would have to eat about 10–15 raw tomatoes, 60 mL (2 oz. Lycopene is also found in papaya, strawberries, watermelon, guava, and pink grapefruit. These active cultures also help digest the naturally occurring sugar (lac- tose) in dairy products that causes bloating and diarrhea in some people. Avoid the “diet” or “light” yogurts, since they are sweetened with aspartame, a chemical whose safety in food is questionable. For this reason those looking for the consistent benefits of probiotics often opt for supplements. Supplements often provide a standardized amount of the active compounds, they are easy to take, and are a great way to complement the diet. In this chapter I will share with you my 10 principles for a healthy diet, elements that I recommend based on current science for optimal health, energy, and disease prevention. Items from foreign countries may contain higher levels of pesticides and bacteria. To preserve the nutrients in your food, minimize storage time and cooking or reheating. Choose whole-grain (brown rice, multigrain breads) over the refined and pro- cessed products. Refined grains (white bread) have most of the vitamins, minerals, and fibre removed. Quality protein sources include free-range and organic meat and poultry, legumes, nuts, seeds, and tofu. If you are following a vegetarian diet, be sure to incorpo- rate a variety of plant-based proteins to ensure that all essential amino acids are consumed. Consume health-promoting fats from fish, nuts, seeds, and quality oils (hemp, flaxseed, canola, olive, sunflower, and safflower). Avoid or minimize eating fast/processed foods, as they are typically high in calo- ries, poor in nutritional value, and laden with potentially dangerous chemicals and preservatives. Whether your goal is weight loss or better health, stay away from the latest fad and make healthier food choices. This is particularly important with vegetables and fruits, as their nutrient profiles vary greatly. To obtain the many antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and phytonutrients, eat a variety of plant foods every day. Experiment with new foods and recipes, and try to reintroduce previously disliked foods. The Institute of Medicine provides the following recommendations for adults 30 years and older: Height/Weight Gender Calories (Sedentary) Calories (Active) 5’ 1” Women 1,688–1,834 2,104–2,290 98–132 lbs. Men 2,382–2,736 2,883–3,325 Those engaged in vigorous physical activity or who are pregnant or lactating have increased calorie requirements. They recommend that adults get 45–65 percent of their calories from carbohydrates, 20–35 percent from fat, and 10–35 percent from protein.

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