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The submucosa of the duodenum is the only site of the complex mucus-secreting duodenal glands (Brunner’s glands) purchase 160 mg super p-force oral jelly, which produce a bicarbonate-rich alkaline mucus that buffers the acidic chyme as it enters from the stomach buy discount super p-force oral jelly 160 mg. Cells of the Small Intestinal Mucosa Cell Location in the Function type mucosa Epithelium/intestinal Absorptive Digestion and absorption of nutrients in chyme glands Epithelium/intestinal Goblet Secretion of mucus glands Paneth Intestinal glands Secretion of the bactericidal enzyme lysozyme; phagocytosis Intestinal glands of G cells Secretion of the hormone intestinal gastrin duodenum Intestinal glands of Secretion of the hormone cholecystokinin, which stimulates release of I cells duodenum pancreatic juices and bile Secretion of the hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, which K cells Intestinal glands stimulates the release of insulin Intestinal glands of Secretion of the hormone motilin, which accelerates gastric emptying, M cells duodenum and stimulates intestinal peristalsis, and stimulates the production of pepsin jejunum S cells Intestinal glands Secretion of the hormone secretin Table 23. Peyer’s patches are most prominent in young people and become less distinct as you age, which coincides with the general activity of our immune system. Epithelial cells continue the digestion and absorption of nutrients and transport these nutrients to the lymphatic and circulatory systems. In the small intestine, the products of food digestion are absorbed by different structures in the villi. Mechanical Digestion in the Small Intestine The movement of intestinal smooth muscles includes both segmentation and a form of peristalsis called migrating motility complexes. If you could see into the small intestine when it was going through segmentation, it would look as if the contents were being shoved incrementally back and forth, as the rings of smooth muscle repeatedly contract and then relax. Instead, it combines the chyme with digestive juices and pushes food particles against the mucosa to be absorbed. The duodenal mucosa secretes the hormone motilin, which initiates peristalsis in the form of a migrating motility complex. These complexes, which begin in the duodenum, force chyme through a short section of the small intestine and then stop. The next contraction begins a little bit farther down than the first, forces chyme a bit farther through the small intestine, then stops. These complexes move slowly down the small intestine, forcing chyme on the way, taking around 90 to 120 minutes to finally reach the end of the ileum. The ileocecal valve, a sphincter, is usually in a constricted state, but when motility in the ileum increases, this sphincter 1118 Chapter 23 | The Digestive System relaxes, allowing food residue to enter the first portion of the large intestine, the cecum. First, digestive activity in the stomach provokes the gastroileal reflex, which increases the force of ileal segmentation. Second, the stomach releases the hormone gastrin, which enhances ileal motility, thus relaxing the ileocecal sphincter. After chyme passes through, backward pressure helps close the sphincter, preventing backflow into the ileum. Because of this reflex, your lunch is completely emptied from your stomach and small intestine by the time you eat your dinner. Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine The digestion of proteins and carbohydrates, which partially occurs in the stomach, is completed in the small intestine with the aid of intestinal and pancreatic juices. Lipids arrive in the intestine largely undigested, so much of the focus here is on lipid digestion, which is facilitated by bile and the enzyme pancreatic lipase. Moreover, intestinal juice combines with pancreatic juice to provide a liquid medium that facilitates absorption. The small intestine’s absorptive cells also synthesize digestive enzymes and then place them in the plasma membranes of the microvilli. This distinguishes the small intestine from the stomach; that is, enzymatic digestion occurs not only in the lumen, but also on the luminal surfaces of the mucosal cells. This is because chyme from the stomach is typically hypertonic, and if large quantities were forced all at once into the small intestine, the resulting osmotic water loss from the blood into the intestinal lumen would result in potentially life-threatening low blood volume. In addition, continued digestion requires an upward adjustment of the low pH of stomach chyme, along with rigorous mixing of the chyme with bile and pancreatic juices. Both processes take time, so the pumping action of the pylorus must be carefully controlled to prevent the duodenum from being overwhelmed with chyme. Small Intestine: Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a condition characterized by indigestion caused by dairy products. It occurs when the absorptive cells of the small intestine do not produce enough lactase, the enzyme that digests the milk sugar lactose. In contrast, some human populations, most notably Caucasians, are able to maintain the ability to produce lactase as adults. Symptom severity ranges from mild discomfort to severe pain; however, symptoms resolve once the lactose is eliminated in feces. Those with lactose intolerance exhale hydrogen, which is one of the gases produced by the bacterial fermentation of lactose in the colon. After the hydrogen is absorbed from the intestine, it is transported through blood vessels into the lungs. The primary function of this organ is to finish absorption of nutrients and water, synthesize certain vitamins, form feces, and eliminate feces from the body. Despite its being about one-half as long as the small intestine, it is called large because it is more than twice the diameter of the small intestine, about 3 inches. Subdivisions The large intestine is subdivided into four main regions: the cecum, the colon, the rectum, and the anus. The ileocecal valve, located at the opening between the ileum and the large intestine, controls the flow of chyme from the small intestine to the large intestine. However, at least one recent report postulates a survival advantage conferred by the appendix: In diarrheal illness, the appendix may serve as a bacterial reservoir to repopulate the enteric bacteria for those surviving the initial phases of the illness.

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B- lymphocytes (B cells): white blood cells that produce antibodies against specific targets generic super p-force oral jelly 160 mg visa. Basophils: white blood cells that release histamine in allergic responses and heparin that removes fat particles from the blood buy 160mg super p-force oral jelly fast delivery. Body system: a collection of organs that perform related functions essential for survival of the whole body, e. Calmodulin: intracellular calcium-binding protein that upon activation is important in smooth muscle contraction. Cardiovascular control center: the integrating center located in the medullas of the brain stem that controls mean arterial blood pressure. Channels: Small water filled pathways through the plasma membrane providing highly selective passages for ions. Cholesterol: a type of fat molecule that serves as a pressure for steroid hormones and bile salts and is a sterilizing component of the plasma membrane. Cholinergic fibers: nerve fibers that release acetylcholime as their neuro-transmitter. Circulatory shock: when mean arterial blood pressure falls so low that adequate blood flow to the tissues can no longer be maintained. Congestive heart failure: the inability of the cardiac output to keep place with the body, needs for blood delivery with blood damming up in the veins behind the failing heart. Controlled variable: Some factors that can vary but controlled in a steady state Coronary artery disease: Atherosclerotic plaque formation and narrowing of the coronary artery that supply that heart muscle. Cytoplasm: the portion of the cell not occupied by the nucleus Cytosol: portion of the cell not occupied by organelles Cytotoxic T-cells: Cells that destroy host cells bearing antigens such as virus infected cells, cancer cells etc. Depolarization: a reduction of membrane action potential from resting membrane potential towards 0 mV. Effector organs: the muscles or granular tissue innervated by nerves that bring about the desired effect such as secretion or movement. Endoplasmic reticulum: Membrane network of fluid-filled tubules synthesizing proteins and lipids. Endothelium: the thin single celled layer of epithelial cells that lines the entire circulatory system. Eosinophils: white blood cells that are important in allergic response in combating parasitic infections. Erythropoiesis: Red cell production by the bone marrow Erythropoietin: the hormone released from the kidneys in response to hypoxia; stimulating Erythrocyte production. Excitable Tissue: Tissue capable of producing electrical signals when excited includes muscle and nerve. Feed forward mechanism: a response designed to prevent an anticipated change in a controlled variable. Fibrinogen: soluble plasma protein that is changed to thread like molecules that form the blood clot. First messenger: an extracellular chemical messenger that binds with the membrane receptor and activates an intracellular second messenger to achieve desired cellular response. Frank-Starling law of the heart: intrinsic control of the heart, such that increased venous return resulting in increased end-diastolic volume leads to an increased strength of contraction and increased stroke volume; that is, the heart normally pumps out all of the blood returned to it. Golgi complex: a cellular organelle that processes raw materials into finished product and sorts and directs for final destination. Granulocytes: Leukocytes that contain granules such as neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils. Helper T- cells: T- cells enhancing the activity of other immune response effector cells. Hyperpolarization: an increase in membrane potential from resting potential, becoming even more negative. Internal environment: The body extracellular fluid region having plasma and interstitial fluid. Left ventricle: the heart chamber that pumps blood in to the systematic circulation. Lysosome: Cell organelles having powerful hydrolytic enzymes that destroy unwanted material within the cell. Macrophage: large tissue bound phagocytic cells Mean arterial blood pressure: the pressure responsible for driving blood forward through the arteries in to the tissues throughout the cardiac cycle. Motor neurons: neurons that innervate skeletal muscles Motor unit: is motor nerve plus all of the muscle fibers innervated. Multi-unit smooth muscle: muscle with multiple discrete cells independent of each other Myelinated fiber: neuronal axon covered at regular intervals with insulative myelin. Negative feed: a regulatory mechanism in which a change in the controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change, thus maintaining a steady state of the variable. Paracrine: a local chemical messenger exerting effects only on nearby cells in the immediate vicinity of secretion. Phagocytosis: a type of endocytosis Plaque: a deposit of cholesterol and other lipids, perhaps calcified, in the thickened, abnormal smooth muscle with in blood vessels as a result of altherosclersis. Positive feedback: a regulatory mechanism in which the inputs and outputs in control system continue to enhance each other so that the variable moves further from steady state value.